Explain the relationship between early ethnic or racially organized crime

For some reason I cannot get into my email therefore will be checking back here every now and again….Do not remember if I sent info this morning but here it is again   300-350 words with references on 

Really do appreciate…also might need some help on an introduction and conclusion….I am working on it now but it doesn’t sound right to me…This would be on the LCN but I willl give more infor when I see if I can do it 

original work

1. Explain the difference between good and bad table structures.  How do you recognize the difference between good and bad structures? What role does normalization play in good and bad table structures, and why is normalization so important to a good table structure?

2. What is the importance of data validation? How can we avoid data-entry errors?  How can forms help us reduce data-entry errors? What features does Access offer to help validate data? What are the different kinds of validations that are required?


The Ethical Practice of Psychotherapy: Easily Within

Our Reach


Jeffrey E. Barnett

Independent Practice, Arnold, Maryland and Loyola College

in Maryland

Psychotherapists confront a myriad of ethical dilemmas as they

endeavor to provide effective services. This issue of the

Journal of

Clinical Psychology: In Session

on Ethics in Psychotherapy provides

psychotherapists with thoughtful reviews, case examples, and

practical guidance in the major areas of ethics. Following this brief

introduction, the subsequent seven articles cover Informed consent;

confidentiality, privilege, and their limits; treatment of minors and their

families; business matters of practice (e.g., money, fees, bartering,

advertising); clinical competence and scope of practice; boundaries

and nonsexual multiple relationships; and termination and abandon-

ment. This issue is designed to promote ethical practice, to provide

guidance on common ethical dilemmas, and to prevent ethical

challenges before they occur.


2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin

Psychol:In Session 64: 569–575, 2008.

Keywords: ethics; psychotherapy; ethical practice; dilemmas; profes-

sional conduct

The practice of psychotherapy can be highly rewarding, yet quite challenging. Despite

their extensive training and best efforts, psychotherapists often find themselves ill-

prepared for the wide range of ethics dilemmas that face them. This issue of the

Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session

brings together distinguished experts in

mental health ethics to educate and guide practitioners in successfully navigating some

of the most common and challenging ethical dilemmas in psychotherapy. Respected

authors address seven of these challenges: Informed consent; confidentiality, privilege,

and their limits; treatment of minors and their families; business matters of practice

(e.g., money, fees, bartering, advertising); clinical competence and scope of practice;

boundaries and nonsexual multiple relationships; and termination and abandonment.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to: Jeffrey E. Barnett 1511 Ritchie Highway,

Suite 201, Arnold, MD 21012; e-mail: drjbarnett1@comcast.net



2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/jclp.20473

The overarching aim of the issue is to assist psychotherapists in rendering the most

ethical and effective services possible.

In this brief introduction, I offer a practical approach to ethical practice that

addresses the complexities of psychotherapy practice, the many forces that create

ethics challenges, and that can be integrated easily into each psychotherapist’s daily

practices. Then I introduce the following articles in this issue and the essential

aspects of ethical practice each addresses.

The Ethical Practice of Psychotherapy

Psychotherapists can adopt several strategies in their efforts to practice ethically.

These include positive or aspirational ethics, risk management, and defensive

practice (Barnett, 2007).

Positive ethics

focuses the psychotherapist on constantly

striving to achieve the highest ethical standards of our profession. It is guided by a

series of aspirational virtues that we strive to achieve throughout our careers. These

virtues provide both important direction and a conceptual framework. These virtues



beneficence: doing good and providing maximum benefit to those psychothera-

pists serve


nonmaleficence: avoiding exploitation and harm of clients and those associated

with them


fidelity: being faithful to the explicit and implicit obligations psychotherapists

have to their clients


autonomy: promoting each client’s independence of us over time and not creating

increased dependence on us through our actions


justice: providing fair and equal treatment, and access to treatment, to all



self-care: providing adequate attention to our own physical and psychological

wellness so that we are effectively able to implement the preceding virtues

(Beauchamp & Childress, 2001).

These virtues can generate a series of questions that may be of assistance

when facing dilemmas. For example, ‘‘Will taking this action be in my client’s

best interest?’’ ‘‘Will engaging in this behavior increase the likelihood of exploitation

or harm of my client?’’ ‘‘Is acting in this way consistent with my obligations to my

client and consistent with my client’s expectations of me?’’ ‘‘Will proceeding with this

course of action promote greater dependence on me by my client?’’ ‘‘Am I singling

out this particular client for unique or special treatment in some way?’’ ‘‘Are there

personal factors that I have overlooked that may be contributing to my decision to

engage in this planned course of action?’’

Positive or aspirational ethics strive to achieve the highest ideals of ethical and

professional conduct in all our interactions with clients (Knapp & VandeCreek,

2006). It eschews efforts to do the minimum to get by or to just avoid negative

outcomes. Further, positive ethics focuses on the best possible outcome for the client.

Risk management

shares the goal of positive outcomes for clients, but it is more

specifically focused on minimizing risks for the psychotherapist that may result in

ethics complaints or malpractice claims. Risk management attends to data on the

most likely causes of complaints against psychotherapists and utilizes them to

develop practice models to reduce the probability of these pitfalls. Effective risk

management most frequently addresses informed consent, effective documentation,


Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, May 2008

Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session

DOI: 10.1002/jclp

and consultation (Bennett et al., 2006). While reducing the risk of an ethics

complaint or malpractice claim is obviously of great importance to all psychothera-

pists, as will be seen in the following articles, effective ethical practice embraces risk

management, but retains its focus on the client’s best interests rather than on

protecting the psychotherapist.

Defensive practice

focuses on the direct protection of the psychotherapist. It

involves making decisions based on reducing the possibility of adverse outcomes for

the psychotherapist (Barnett, 2007). For example, a practitioner may restrict the

range of clients worked with and refuse to work with certain types of clients, such as

those with suicidal ideation or severe personality disorders, out of fear that they

materially increase risk (Wilbert & Fulero, 1988). As highlighted in the articles to

follow, overzealous efforts to avoid all possible risk can actually result in greater

harm to clients. For example, an absolute refusal to cross certain boundaries in

psychotherapy, such as self-disclosure and touch, can result in poorer treatment

outcomes and may not be in the client’s best interests (Williams, 1997; Zur, 2001).

The authors of articles in this issue consistently emphasize positive ethics.

Focusing on the client’s best interests and aspiring to the highest ideals of our

profession are most likely to achieve the best treatment outcomes, to assist

psychotherapists in effectively responding to the inevitable ethics challenges we

confront, and incidentally, to minimize risks to the psychotherapist.

The Regulatory Environment

The regulation of healthcare practice creates it own set of complications to positive

ethics. The regulatory environment refers to one’s practice setting and the many

standards, regulations, laws, and policies that regulate the practice of psychotherapy.

All psychotherapists must follow the ethics code of their profession, such as the

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct

(Psychological Association,

2002; hereinafter referred to as the ‘‘Ethics Code’’), and state laws and regulations

relevant to their status as a licensed professional. Additionally, depending on one’s

practice setting, other policies and regulations must be considered. Psychotherapists

working in institutions such as state hospitals, federal prisons, county schools, and

the like will find a plethora of documents that regulate how they conduct themselves

in their professional roles.

Psychotherapists also must be aware of prevailing professional standards in certain

areas. Knowledge of the professional literature in one’s area of practice is an ethical

duty for keeping aware of changes in practice patterns and recent developments that

may alter accepted practices. Psychologists, for example, should familiarize

themselves with American Psychological Association’s (APA) various practice

guidelines that reflect the current consensus of experts in a number of specific

practice areas such as the treatment of older adults, girls and women, and ethnically

diverse populations. These may be accessed at www.apa.org/practice/prof.html.

Ethical Decision Making

When faced with ethical dilemmas, psychotherapists will seek information from the

law, professional publications, and colleagues to guide them in their decision

making. Consider the following two illustrative examples:

A psychotherapist receives a telephone call from an individual identifying

herself as the noncustodial parent of one of the psychotherapist’s clients.


Ethical Practice of Psychotherapy

Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session

DOI: 10.1002/jclp

The client is a minor, and the psychotherapist correctly had the custodial

parent consent to the child’s psychotherapy. But the psychotherapist is

unsure of how to respond to this request since the noncustodial parent has

not been involved in the treatment and the custodial parent does not want

her involved.

The first thing the psychotherapist did was review the Ethics Code and its sections

on informed consent to psychotherapy. While the psychotherapist did follow these

standards, the issue of the noncustodial parent’s access to treatment information had

not been addressed. The psychotherapist next sought consultation with a colleague

with expertise in ethics and legal issues in psychotherapy. The colleague referred the

psychotherapist to a particular section of law in their state that authorizes all

noncustodial parents to have access to all treatment information concerning their

children. While they cannot consent to their children’s treatment, they do have the

legal right to all information about the treatment and to participate in it if desired.

Then, after reading several articles in the professional literature, the psychothera-

pist learned more about preventive practices with regard to the treatment of minors

and the involvement of their parents in treatment. Based on recommendations in the

literature, the psychotherapist scheduled a meeting with both parents, reviewed

relevant Ethics Code standards and the relevant statute, and then together they

modified the original informed consent agreement to the satisfaction of all involved.

The minor client’s psychotherapy then proceeded successfully.

A male psychotherapist is providing treatment to an attractive female client.

Over the course of treatment, the psychotherapist realizes he is becoming

attracted to the client. He understands his obligation to focus on his client’s

best interests, but is unsure of how to deal with his feelings and how to


The psychotherapist reviews relevant sections of the Ethics Code, including

standards on multiple relationships, avoiding exploitation and harm, and attention

to one’s personal functioning and how it may impact client welfare. He then reads

relevant professional literature on personal feelings toward clients, boundary issues

and multiple relationships, self-care, the use of consultation and personal

psychotherapy, and when to restrict or limit one’s scope of practice.

The psychotherapist then consulted with an experienced, trusted colleague and

discussed the situation openly and honestly. As a result of this consultation and

upon self-reflection, the therapist realized that he has been under stress in his

personal life lately and that this may be impacting his professional conduct. With the

support of his colleague, he seeks personal psychotherapy and begins to address

these concerns with his psychotherapist. With what he learns and now understands

better, he is able to continue his clinical work with this client and do so in an ethical

and appropriate manner.

As can be seen in these case examples, a primary source of guidance when faced

with ethics dilemmas is the ethics code of one’s profession. The Ethics Code provides

both general principles that are aspirational in nature (based on and applied like the

virtues) and a code of conduct comprised of enforceable minimal expectations for

professional conduct. Each is important for considering how to provide psychother-

apy in the most ethical manner possible. But, the Ethics Code makes it clear that it

cannot specifically address every situation or dilemma that a psychotherapist may

face. Further, it states that psychotherapists are to consider the Ethics Code in their


Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, May 2008

Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session

DOI: 10.1002/jclp

ethics decision making, but also should consider relevant laws and regulations as

well as ‘‘.


other materials and guidelines that have been adopted or endorsed by

scientific and professional psychological organizations and the dictates of their own

conscience, as well as consult with others in the field’’ (p. 1062).

As one of several sources of guidance, the Ethics Code does not replace the

psychotherapist’s judgment but should be used in concert with it. A number of

models of ethical decision making are available that can guide the psychotherapist

when faced by challenges with no readily clear course of appropriate action. Clause

and Cottone (2000) provided an excellent review of available decision-making

models. Further, psychotherapists may access the Markkula Center for Applied

Ethics’ Web site at http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/ for a helpful set of

ethical decision-making resources.

Challenges for Ethical Practice

APA’s Ethics Committee (2004, 2005, 2006) regularly compiles the types and

frequency of complaints received against psychologists. In the recent past, the most

common complaints, in order of decreasing frequency, entail


boundary problems and multiple relationships, both sexual and nonsexual


practicing outside one’s areas of competence


insurance and fee issues




false, fraudulent, or misleading public statements


child custody evaluations


inappropriate follow-up and termination


inappropriate response to a crisis.

These categories are not necessarily mutually exclusive. For example, when

conducting a child custody evaluation, a clinician may practice outside of areas of

competence while engaging in an inappropriate multiple relationship. Other

combinations of unethical behaviors among these categories may easily be seen.

Regardless, these most challenging areas of clinical practice closely mirror the

articles in this issue. The seven ensuing articles offer thoughtful reviews, case

examples, and practical guidance on the ethics of psychotherapy.

Overview of Articles

In the first article, ‘‘Informed Consent to Psychotherapy: Protecting the Dignity and

Respecting the Autonomy of Patients,’’ Celia Fisher and Matthew Oransky address

the critical role of informed consent in the psychotherapy process. They emphasize

the role of a thoughtful and comprehensive informed consent process as a means of

promoting clients’ best interests and in laying a foundation for the psychotherapy

relationship. Informed consent minimizes risks to clients and prevents many

potential ethics challenges. Their numerous case examples and practical suggestions

will help psychotherapists to develop informed consent procedures that should help

avert many of these challenges.

Jeffrey Younggren and Eric Harris then address confidentiality and privilege,

along with their exceptions in their article, ‘‘Can You Keep a Secret? Confidentiality

in Psychotherapy.’’ These authors explain the centrality of confidentiality for the

success of every psychotherapy relationship, explain how it differs from the legal

concept of privilege, and highlight the multiple threats to confidentiality that exist.


Ethical Practice of Psychotherapy

Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session

DOI: 10.1002/jclp

Further, they utilize case law and provide practice recommendation so that each

client’s confidentiality may be optimally preserved.

Gerald Koocher, in his article entitled ‘‘Ethical Challenges in Mental Health

Services to Children and Families,’’ expands on consent and confidentiality as they

specifically apply to clinical work with minors and their families. Koocher applies the

4-C model—competence, consent, confidentiality, and congruence of interests—

when children and their parents participate in or set goals for psychotherapy. His

article addresses the unique challenges that confront psychotherapists who must

balance competing interests of children and their parents. Koocher provides

thoughtful analyses of these most frequent dilemmas and offers practical

recommendations to help prevent ethical lapses.

Samuel Knapp and Leon VandeCreek then address the ‘‘business’’ of psychother-

apy in their article, ‘‘The Ethics of Advertising, Billing, and Finances in

Psychotherapy.’’ They tackle the sticky topics of advertising, billing, and finances,

which may adversely impact the psychotherapy process and relationship if not

properly addressed. They do so through realistic case examples and by applying

virtues to assist psychotherapists in achieving the highest ideals in business practices.

In her article, ‘‘Competence and Scope of Practice: Ethics and Professional

Development,’’ Erica Wise addresses the complexities and challenges of establishing

clinical competence. Through case examples, she emphasizes a comprehensive and

proactive approach to competence that utilizes self-reflection and self-care along

with ongoing professional development.

Next, Kenneth Pope and Patricia Keith-Spiegel provide a thoughtful approach

for managing boundary concerns and nonsexual multiple relationships in

psychotherapy in their article, ‘‘A Practical Approach to Boundaries in

Psychotherapy: Making Decisions, Bypassing Blunders, and Mending Fences.’’

Their realism is sensitive to clients’ treatment needs, individual differences, and the

potential of negative client reactions. Importantly, they provide psychotherapists

with a detailed review of frequently occurring cognitive errors that may lead to

harmful results.

In the final article, ‘‘Psychotherapy Termination: Clinical and Ethical Responsi-

bilities,’’ Melba Vasquez, Rosie Bingham, and Jeffrey Barnett address the final phase

of psychotherapy: termination. They highlight differences between termination and

abandonment, discuss the many ways that a psychotherapy relationship may end

(both planned and unplanned), and recommend practical steps to help ensure a

successful outcome to the psychotherapy process.

In the end, our hope is that this compilation will provide psychotherapists with a

solid foundation for ethical practice. These articles provide practical strategies for

addressing the most common ethical challenges. Learning how to prevent these

challenges when possible, and how to respond to them thoughtfully and effectively

when they arise, will serve the best interests of all psychotherapists, and even more

importantly, the best interests of our clients.


American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of

conduct. American Psychologist, 57, 1060–1073.

American Psychological Association, Ethics Committee. (2004). Report of the Ethics

Committee, 2003. American Psychologist, 59, 434–441.


Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, May 2008

Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session

DOI: 10.1002/jclp


Ethics in Psychotherapy Analysis Worksheet

Use this worksheet and your understanding of critical thinking and the structure of an argument to analyze the article on ethics in psychotherapy from u03s3. To fill out the worksheet, work your way down through the analysis components and include your responses in the box next to the component. There are notes in the margins to help you flesh out the line of reasoning of the author, so use the notes along with your own interpretations as you fill out the analysis worksheet. You will submit this worksheet to the Unit 3 assignment area.

Name: [Delete this message and insert your name]

Analysis Components

Ethics in Psychotherapy Article

Barnett, J.E. (2008) The ethical practice of psychotherapy: easily within our reach. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 569-575.

The main purpose of this article is…[State as accurately as possible the author’s purpose (goal, intention, desired outcome) for writing this article]

The problem to be solved is…[Identify the problem or issue the author is addressing in this article]

The point of view of the author is…[Identify the author’s position or point of view in this article; who or what group does he represent?]

The information the author provides to support his position is… [How do we know there is a problem?  What evidence is there that this problem exists?]

The main conclusion[s] in this article are…[Identify the key conclusions or solutions to the problem the author provides in this article]

If we accept the author’s line of reasoning, the implications are…[What possible or probable consequences does the author’s argument imply for the practice of psychotherapy?]

Intercultural Communications Discussion

Assume that you have been invited to ONE of the following social/cultural events for the very first time:

 1) a Jewish Passover Seder

 2) a Day of the Dead family picnic in a Mexican graveyard 

3) a formal Japanese tea ceremony in Kyoto.

In a minimum of two pages explain how you might avoid the six barriers to intercultural communication 

 – anxiety, focusing on similarities rather than differences, ethno-centrism, stereotyping or prejudices, different non-verbal communications and languages?

Habeas corpus in the war of terror

Write an essay about the right of habeas corpus in the context of the war on terror. Your essay should address the following subtopics:

  1. Explain the historical evolution of habeas corpus, including its English and American traditions. The explanation of its evolution within the American tradition should include the general meaning of the right of habeas corpus in the U.S. Constitution and its relationship to the protection of other civil liberties.
  2. Provide examples from U.S. history of the suspension of habeas corpus and their applicability to the present.
  3. Analyze the relevance of habeas corpus to the contemporary U.S. situation during the war on terror, especially with respect to persons characterized by as enemy combatants or illegal combatants.
  4. Explain the U.S. Supreme Court’s interpretation of the right of habeas corpus with respect to enemy combatants or illegal combatants (i.e., the views of the five justices making up the majority in Boumediene v. Bush as well as the views of the four dissenting justices).
  5. Evaluate a minimum of four perspectives on this topic expressed by justices of the Supreme Court, leaders in other branches of government, and commentators in both the academic and popular media. Your evaluation should consider perspectives on the following topics as they relate to habeas corpus:
    1. The role of the President as Commander-in-Chief.
    2. The role of Congress in determining when habeas corpus can be suspended.
    3. The role of the Supreme Court in protecting civil liberties, including the judicial philosophy which should guide the Court in this role, and
    4. In your evaluation, you should also include your personal philosophy, values, or ideology about the balance between civil liberties and national security in the context of an unending war on terror.
Follow these requirements when writing the Final Paper:
  1. The body of the paper (excluding the title page and reference page) must be at least 1,500 words long.
  2. The paper must start with a short introductory paragraph which includes a clear thesis statement. The thesis statement must tell readers what the essay will demonstrate.
  3. The paper must end with a short paragraph that states a conclusion. The conclusion and thesis must be consistent.
  4. The paper must logically develop the thesis in a way that leads to the conclusion, and that development must be supported by facts, fully explained concepts and assertions, and persuasive reasoning.
  5. The paper must address all subtopics outlined above. At least 20% of the essay must focus on subtopic five, listed above (your evaluation of perspectives on the topic).
  6. Your paper must cite at least three academic articles (excluding the course textbook) and at least four other kinds of sources (e.g., Supreme Court opinions, magazine or newspaper articles, the course textbook, and reliable websites or videos).
  7. Use your own words. While brief quotes from sources may be used, altogether the total amount of quoted text must be less than five percent of the body of your paper.
  8. When you use someone else’s words, they must be enclosed in quotation marks followed by an APA in-text short citation (author, year, and page) to your source. The in-text citation must correspond to a full APA citation for the source on the reference page at the end of the essay.
  9. When you express in your own words someone else’s ideas, arguments or facts, your statement must be followed by an APA in-text short citation (author, year, and page) to your source. The in-text citation must correspond to a full APA citation for the source in the reference page.
  10. The form of the title page, the body pages, and the reference page must comply with APA style. Additionally, the title page must include the course number and name, the instructor’s name, and the date submitted.
  11. The paper must use logical paragraph and sentence transitions, complete and clear sentences, and correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
For this paper you need to do research in peer-reviewed journals or other sources that are considered to have reliable information. In addition to your required course text, you need at least seven scholarly sources, three of which must be peer-reviewed journal articles. 

Choose a Topic From the Given Choices then Write an Essay Based on It

Using your own thoughts and analysis, write a Cause & Effect essay about the topic you have selected. To support your thesis statement and supporting points, cite evidence (facts, statistics, examples, and expert viewpoints) from a minimum of two(2) sources from the in the text of your essay with in-text citations and corresponding reference entries in your reference list. This is not optional; you must use sources to support your thesis statement.

Suggested Topics:

– The Great Depression

– Music Censorship

– The 21st Century Mortgage Crisis

– Youth Violence in Schools

– The No Child Left Behind Act

– Increase in Insurance Rates

– Closing of Schools

– Popularity (or lack of ) of a Public Figure

– Cheating on College Exams

– Violence in the Movies

– Stock Market Manipulation

Final Paper – Create a Business Plan proposal for the health care company

Business Plan

Focus of the Final Paper

Review Chapter 24 of the text.  Utilize the health care business you selected in Week Three as well as the answers to the Basic Information questions.  Create a Business Plan proposal for your health care company that includes the following sections:
1.   Executive Summary: 1 – 2 pages, concise summary of a business report. It restates the purpose of the report, it highlights the major points of the report, and it describes any results, conclusions, or recommendations from the report.  
2.   Service and / or Equipment Description: 1 page minimum
3.   Organizational Plan: 1 page minimum, include a chart that illustrates the structure of the organization.  In addition, provide a summary of your management (i.e. background, responsibilities, etc.)
4.   Marketing Segment: 1 page minimum, include demographics, target market, any incentives, competitors, advertisement, etc.
5.   Financial Analysis: Projected income statement and types of assumptions made to compute the figures.
a.  Typical Income Statement assumption information requirements.
b.  What types of revenue?
c.  How many services will be offered to produce the revenue (by month)?
d.  How much labor will be required (FTEs)?
e.  What will the labor cost?
f.  How many and what types of supplies, drugs and/or devices will be required to offer the service?
g.  What will the supplies, drugs and/or devices cost?
h.  How much space will be required?
i.  What will the required space occupancy cost?
j.  Is special equipment required?

Your Business Plan should include a title page and table of contents (with sections and page numbers).  

The final paper must be eight-to ten-pages in length (excluding title and reference pages). Include five to eight scholarly sources, cited in APA format.

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:

1.   Must be eight-to ten-double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

2.   Must include a title page with the following:
a.   Title of paper
b.   Student’s name
c.   Course name and number
d.   Instructor’s name
e.   Date submitted
3.   Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
4.   Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
5.   Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
6.    Must use at least five to eight scholarly sources, cited according to APA format as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
7.   Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.


Week 4 – Discussion 2

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Humanist and Interactionist Theories

Select two of the humanist and interactionist theories presented in Chapter 8 of the text. Compare and contrast the features of the theories, with respect to the causes and influences of criminal behavior. Discuss the pros and cons of each theory. Which theory do you believe is most valid and why?

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7. Select one of the theories your peer discussed and provide at least one additional pro and one additional con regarding that theory. Support your discussion with an example. 

Heat stress – Heat index measurement regulations

OSHA does not have a regulatory standard for heat stress. Recently, OSHA initiated a new outreach using a heat index instead of the historical WBGT measurements (see http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/heatillness/heat_index/index.html).  Is this a better way to evaluate and protect against heat stress?  Should OSHA have a regulation instead of an educational outreach?  Why or why not? 

150 word minimum response required. APA format, include reference and Plagiarism Free!!!! 

DUE 17 JAN 14


Ashford 5: – Week 4 – Assignment

Sexual Predator Prosecution

Prepare a paper that details your home state’s approach to sexual predators. Address following items in your paper:

  1. Does your state have any laws that prohibit conduct that would be considered to be predatory?
  2. What types of crimes are codified into law, misdemeanor, or felony?
  3. What are the punishments?
  4. Are there mandatory punishments, or do judges have discretion in sentencing a defendant after conviction?
  5. According to the statutes that you research, is mere solicitation of improper activities enough for a prosecution, or must there be physical contact?
  6. Provide your opinion on the statute(s) and their varying severity on sexual predators.

NOTE: If you cannot locate your state’s statutes, please research Florida’s.

The paper must be three to four pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least two scholarly sources in addition to the textbook to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page