What is the actual title

Running Head: COGNITION FINAL 10



Please note that your paper should have a running head and page numbers.


Title: Cognition Final Comment by Wendy Nickerson: What is the actual title/topic of your paper?

Laura Utgard

Cal Southern University

May. 2018

Laura, please see my comments on your paper below. I will need you to revise and resubmit your paper as it is presently not written and organized up to graduate level writing. Many sentences are not complete and do not flow or have significant meaning. In addition, there are numerous errors in spelling/spacing/grammar. Please check with your APA manual to see how to properly set up your title page, abstract page and reference page. Please let me know if you have any questions. I am here to help you.

P.S. I have highlighted in yellow some of your key points.

Dr. Nickerson










Cognitive, Emotional and Motivatioinal Dysfunctions in Mental Illness? Cognition Final


The following paper outlines a research dialogue which emphasizes the present state of the understanding we have regarding the cognitive, emotional as well as motivational dysfunctions in relation to mental illness. The research is going to focus on the influences, relations to, and even the impact the mental illness has on motivational, emotional as well as stress. The major focus in the research discussion will be the critical essentialness of the motivational process as well as the possible influence it may have on the cognitive function as well as learning in mental illness. The members of my research group provided several questions which would assist us in conducting a deep research about the motivation process. The questions included; the measurements as well as the definition of the diverse motivation components. The second question will focus on the connection between incentive drive, intrinsic motivation as well as the hedonic processing. The third question will focus on the integrity of the motivational process, the hedonic process as well as the incentive drive in mental illness. The fourth questions will focus on the influence that the cognitive shortfalls have on the motivational disorder in mental illness. The fifth question will focus on the control of the antipsychotic treatment on the incentive drive as well as the hedonic processing of the mental illness. Lastly, the sixth question which was raised would focus on the relationship between the cognitive function, the aversive stimuli process as well as stress. This is a robust number of questions to answer in a paper this length. It may have been better and easier on you to stick to one or two questions and answer each in more detail. Just a thought.





Following the new processes which have been based on the having an adequate understanding of the breadth as well as the nature of the cognitive dysfunction in mental illness to be able to aid the establishment of medication which will surely become better in disabling the aspect of mental illness. By doing so part of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia has obtained from the large research body which is focused on providing an understanding of the sensory bases of the particular cognitive activities in human and the animal models and research on the nature as well as the nervous system biology of the cognitive social impairment in persons suffering from mental illness. Research’s main purpose in this paper is to describe the different ways in which the cognitive social impairment in mental illness are connected to, controlled by, and even the impact the mental illness has on motivational, emotional as well as stress areas. A health practitioner who has interacted with patients suffering from mental illness may be aware that cognitive dysfunction may be out-standing; the patients may also show a host of the emotional as well as the motivational deficits. The shortfalls may include the inappropriate effect, less motivation of achieving, social withdrawal as well as the minimal ability to experience pleasure. Based on the historical findings, works related to cognitive as well as emotional function in mental illness has turned out to be a parallel process with researchers focusing on either a single domain or the other. But with most of the recent research works, there has been an exploration of the essential interaction among the cognition as well as the emotion in mental illness. Comment by Wendy Nickerson: Please note that this is a long sentence, however not a complete sentence as it does not produce a complete thought.

The main theme of the discussion in this research is emphasized on the significance of understanding the principle of the motivational process in mental illness (Wang, 2008). The major reason for this priority is the possible interest that several features of the cognitive social impairment of the mental illness may be secondary to the natural deficiency of motivation that distances all the features of a person’s growth or to more particular motivational shortfalls which are related with basic motivation to perform better on cognitive undertaking which are abstracted. The study of cognition activities on strong persons it often focuses on the presumption that individuals are motivated in a particular way hence performing better on cognitive tasks may be because they are driven by the intrinsic motivation to perform better or due to the external support that is given by money or even praise. The above assumptions may not be true for a patient suffering from mental illness because the illness impairs either the responsively towards extrinsic supporters or intrinsic motivational. If that’s the case it would be asserted that poor cognitive task performance would reflect the lack of motivation or engagement to perform better rather than the inherent toughness with the psychological process drawn by the undertaking. Depending on this theory studies have portrayed that conducting cognitive undertakings like the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, facial impact perception as well as the Span of Apprehension may be improved through the utilization of monetary incentives. Also, several other researchers have not proved that monetary support mainly uplifts the cognitive undertaking performance between patients who are suffering from mental illness as well as the same researchers portray improvement because of the monetary support do not inevitably portray a complete bettering of the cognitive social impairment. Hence the main role the motivational process plays in an impaired cognitive undertaking performance in mental illness is still not clear. Comment by Wendy Nickerson: This segment needs to be reworded as it does not flow easily and is difficult to read and understand.

In addition, if research may firmly explain some of the proportions related to cognitive impairment in mental illness, it is because of the motivational factors and as there researchers we are required to understand how the motivation may interact with the influence of cognition based on social as well as occupational activities that are related to mental illness. It also may be naturally easy to understand how minimal motivation may lead to poor accomplishment on the experimental cognitive undertakings in the laboratory setting which may have no basic importance or any relationship to life activity (Fussell, 2012). Also, the motivational factors may contribute to influencing the connection between the cognitive activity as well as the social or occupational activities. The possibilities are that the motivational shortfalls are the “third” changeable factors which may lead to a counterfeit connection between the two. It means that motivational shortfall between people with mental illness may contribute to the poor accomplishment of the cognitive undertakings in the laboratory as well as failing to engage in life activities which are needed live as well as work independently. Comment by Wendy Nickerson: I am not sure what you are saying here? How could you say it more simply? Comment by Wendy Nickerson: Are you meaning that they may not be motivated to try hard on laboratory testing?

Another essential reason for focusing on understanding the motivation between the research team members the way learning may influence by the motivation or support in mental illness. People apparently learn from the mistakes they make either when performing cognitive tasks or when they are in real life scenario due to the intrinsic motivation they are able to conduct tasks excellently or due to the motivation provided more stable support for unseen successful performance (Neeraja, 2011). Also, motivational shortfalls may contribute leading the individuals with mental illness to tend to react differently to errors or they are not able to learn from their setbacks and this is some of the problems that may contribute to significant disability in both the real-life situation as well as the laboratory setting. More research work is required to provide a clear understanding of how the control of motivational factors on learning in mental illness in both the real-life situation as well as the laboratory setting.

Primary study on motivation

To be able to better understand the motivational function in mental illness the research members were able to identify several questions which were not answered and they needed to be addressed as well as areas that need to be researched further. The first significant question is defining the true meaning of motivation as well as how it may be differentiated from other connected constructs like effort. Both, as well as behavioral neuroscience, hold a vast information regarding the research history of motivational aspects by emphasizing the significance of the motivational factors as the variable sources of behavior. Hence providing the reason why behavior may appear to be adaptable as well as flexible when an individual is presented with different situations as well as the reason why supposedly particular behavior may be changed (Elsevier, 2011). Most of the research which is conducted on motivation in the behavioral neuroscience literature focuses on the concept of homeostatic drives or the idea that organisms are driven to maintain a concrete internal state following the variables like hunger, thirst or even other added behaviors. Motivation influence in regards to the deficits in the systems, for example, dehydration, hunger or the low blood glucose which contributes to the system designing behaviors which will assist it in returning to its normal state or stable state. For example, it may be suggested that motivation may comprise both the appetitive as well as absolute phases. The appetitive stage refers to the indication signal of the possible availability of the “desired” stimulus and the means or the instrumental conduct which is utilized to the progression of achieving the set goal. Humans, as well as the animal, may be motivated to attaining stimuli which contribute to the support of some of their senses even if the stimuli does not primarily serve to fix some of the internal shortfall states. In this kind of motivation concentrates on the incentive drive or the appetite approach concept of motivation. Several views regarding motivation can be easy to implement as well as understanding the motivational control on the cognitive function as well as the social function compared to the homeostatic views (Kleinberg, 2011). Most of these drives control our daily conducts which are related to the basic needs we require water as well as food. Also, the attainment motivation, desires or the interpersonal are important because they are also retrieved from our basic needs motivation. Comment by Wendy Nickerson: I’m not sure what this means. Comment by Wendy Nickerson: How is this related to motivation in mental illness?

It is essential to note that there is a quite rich fundamental behavioral science literature regarding motivational process which also has a lot to provide when it comes to attempting to understand the interrelationship among the motivation as well as the cognitive activity in mental illness (Sharan, 2008). Based on previous researches conducted earlier are highly informative in regards to the way expectations regarding the results are responsible for influencing the decisions as well as the decisions that every patient suffering from mental illness make in regards to the potential loaded down results and the kinds of individual diversity variable which may be essential to consider when one tries to understand the motor function in the mental illness patients. Comment by Wendy Nickerson: This sentence requires rewording. I am not sure exactly what you are meaning?

Motivation in Mental illness

Even though we may fully understand the psychological as well as the neural mechanisms which are responsible for supporting all the kinds of motivational as well as incentives which drive the healthy individuals, the research members provided a suggestion that much needed to be learned regarding the activity of these regimes in persons with mental illness. At the primary level, more work needs to be done so as to respond towards the reward as well as the punishment for mental illness in both neuropsychological as well as the behavioral terms. As noted on the on the earlier research hypothesis several of them hypothesizes the duty of either intervening responses so s to reward themselves or in learning so s to be able to predict the rewards or be able to learn from the feedback of their mistakes (Strauss, 2012). The sources of shortfalls may not be clear nor there are several aspects of the fundamental reward or the appetitive drive converting in mental illness. Several different kinds of abnormalities may influence such shortfalls when it comes to rewarding or even processing of error as well as diverse mechanisms which may point different treatment direction. For instance, it may not be clear whether the people with mental illness may have flawless responses to the fundamental supporter such as food, smells or water in either brain terms of or the conduct function. The nNot being able to experience pleasure for a very long period of time has been considered as the main symptom of mental illness. An individual may view anhedonia as an evidence for the minimal response to rewarding or the pleasure stimuli.

Also, it is not clear whether the responses to the secondary supporter which may also serve as a prediction to the basic reward may be perfect in mental illness. In other conflicting areas evidence in this situation at one research study provided a suggestion of perfect responses towards the monetary reward as well as the punishment of the gambling undertaking and another study showed an impaired performance.

Measurement issues

Additionally, to be able to focus on understanding the primary motivation mechanism, processing of the reward as well as the incentive drive in both the individuals suffering from mental illness as well as the individuals with normal healthy mental state, the research members believed that more research work needed to be conducted in regards to the measurement issues. If the motivational factors are having a critical control over cognition in mental illness cases then it might be essential to have adequate, valid as well as practical motivational measures. One may measure a motivational conduct, with the sense of auditing when a particular organism works towards the reputed desirable goals (Wosnitza, 2009). Also, such an approach of measuring motivation may be consuming time as well as the possible confused by the cognitive shortfalls themselves. The increase of our ability to be able to predict the life activities from the cognitive performance of establishing undertakings which may be using stimuli that is more tapped into the type of noticeable information which people need to alter in the daily lives. Also, there is the growing body of task on the utilization of such works in the social cognitive neuroscience literature as well as mental illness researchers may need to adopt such examples for tasks in clinical populations.

Cognitive control on motivation

The team members of research groups also provided a suggestion that it was essential to audit the potential of a diverse kind of relationship among the cognition as well as motivation, namely the potential that cognitive shortfalls in mental illness which may contribute to motivational shortfalls in mental illness or alternatively of motivational shortfalls which may lead to the appearance of the cognitive shortfall. Following the past research also show that people with mental illness may have the shortfall in tasking memory or the ability to sincerely maintain the information over time. If motivation may be dependable to a segment on the ability to sincerely represent as well sustain information regarding the anticipated rewards thus shortfalls in the ability to maintain such representations which may contribute to the anticipatory or motivational pleasure shortfalls. In this kind of hypothesis, it is consistent with recent tasks on the neural regimes providing support to emotional regulation.

Possible Medication Control

In another theme of research discussion, the research group needed to be able to understand the possible negative impacts that the treatment for the mental illness may contribute on incentive drive, motivation as well as responding to rewards. Most of the medications that are used as basic treatments for mental illness may have control of the dopamine system where most of them are responsible for serving the dopamine receptor kind. Focusing on the possibility thus medications which are used for treating the symptoms of mental illness which may contribute to motivational disturbances or minimal responses to the pleasurable stimuli.

Aspects of Emotional processing and stress

The main parts of this paper are focused on the additional researchers that are required so as to understand the relationship between incentive drive, cognitive activity as well as motivation in mental illness. However, the research group also outlined the required additional research to other related categories such as the relationship which is cognitive activity as well as stress in mental illness and other related consideration of emotional processing like the aversive stimuli.


In conclusion, the outcome of the research discussion may provide a suggestion for many fields that may be requiring additional attention as well as research in regards to both the clinical as well as basic science to what?. The research discussion first provided suggestions that explained that why more work was required to be able to understand the psychological as well as the neural mechanisms that supported the motivational drives for goals set or the stimuli that are not necessarily the basic supporters and well as to understand the mechanisms that reinforced the intrinsic motivational process. Another suggestion that was provided by the research team was that much more research work was required to be able to deeply understand the activity of the range of incentive motivation as well as the hedonic processes in mental illness. Thirdly the research group provided a suggestion regarding the additional attention which was the issues of measurement to be in a better position to use the tools which will allow reliable, practical as well as valid evaluation of the motivation and the ecological valid evaluations of the cognitive activity. The fourth suggestion that the research team provided was the additional research regarding the mental illness treatment which may contribute to shortfalls in the motivation or any other related aspect regarding the hedonic or the incentive processing. Also, we noted that similar research was required to be able to understand the possible influences of the constructs which are related such as stress.







References Comment by Wendy Nickerson: Please note that it is not clear whether some of your resources are books or articles or websites. Please consult your APA manual to determine how to properly provide references on your reference page.



Elsevier. (2011). Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience. Elsevier.

Fussell, S. R. (2012). Social and Cognitive Approaches to Interpersonal Communication. Psychology Press.

Kleinberg, J. L. (2011). The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Group Psychotherapy . Wiley.com.

Neeraja, K. (2011). Textbook of Communication and Education Technology for Nurses. JP Medical Ltd.

Sharan, S. (2008). Organizing Schools for Productive Learning. Springer shop.

Strauss, J. (2012). The Self: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Springer shop.

Wang. (2008). Novel Approaches in Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence. IGI Global.

Wosnitza, M. (2009). Contemporary Motivation Research. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

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