A criticism of person-centered counseling or therapy is

Please answer each question below

Question 1: A criticism of person-centered counseling or therapy is:

a. Its deterministic stance

b. Rigid steps in the counseling or therapy process

c. Too few specifics regarding actions for the new counselor or therapist

d. Overly confrontational

Question 2: Change during Gestalt counseling and psychotherapy comes about as clients become more aware of themselves through:

a. Using a continuum of awareness focused on how, what, and where

b. Using questions rather than statements

c. Using the third-person pronoun “they”

d. Addressing others indirectly

Question 3: Heidegger’s notions of choice, that each choice one makes represents the loss of an alternative, includes all of the following except:

a. The past becomes important in terms of lost opportunities.

b. Future choices are limited due to past choices and the time remaining to fulfill them.

c. We have the freedom to choose but must balance this with responsibility.

d. Some choices are irrational and we need to train ourselves not to make them with rewards and punishments.

Question 4: Which of the following is descriptive of what “closure” means in existential counseling?

a. Facing the end of the helping relationship is the final confrontation with reality.

b. It means stopping therapy at the end of the semester at a counseling center.

c. It is when counselors close out all of their files.

d. It is a relatively unimportant part of counseling.

Question 5: Which of the following is not one of the three approaches to existential counseling?

a. Dynamic existentialism

b. Humanistic existentialism

c. Cognitive/behavioral existentialism

d. Transpersonal existentialism

Question 6: All of the following are existential philosophers except:

a. Sartre

b. Heidegger

c. Tillich

d. Bion

Question 7: The three people credited for the development of Gestalt therapy are:

a. Perls, Burber, and Nitche

b. Perls, Perls, and Goodman

c. Rogers, Glassman, and Goodman

d. Perls, Kohler, and Koffka

Question 8: A phenomenological perspective:

a. Describes the concept that all persons view the world in a similar manner

b. Describes the concept that all persons have a unique perspective

c. Describes the concept of the “I-Thou” relationship

d. None of the above

Question 9: Awareness is the key to Gestalt therapy. Through awareness, the organism/person naturally proceeds toward:

a. Growth

b. Integration

c. Differentiated unity

d. All of the above

Question 10: Which of the following are major constructs of existentialism?

a. Death

b. Freedom

c. Isolation

d. All of the above

Question 11: According to person-centered theory, for someone to be continuously believed and trusted by a client they must:

a. years of professional experience

b. be genuine

c. know the right questions to ask

d. not make mistakes

Question 12: One of the views that Gestalt theory holds regarding the individual is that he or she is:

a. Fully responsible for his/her behavior

b. Shaped by forces in the environment

c. Motivated by unconscious drives

d. Not able to become aware of himself or herself in the here and now

Question 13: The most important factor in the therapeutic alliance is the:

a. Quality and nature of the relationship between counselor or therapist and client

b. Counselor’s or therapist’s skills

c. Client’s willingness to work hard

d. Depth of the problems being experienced

Question 14: In existential counseling, the client is

a. An existential partner with the counselor

b. A student learning from a teacher

c. Analyzed by the counselor

d. None of the above

Question 15: The word Gestalt is a German term that means:

a. Counselor/client working alliance

b. Existential anxiety

c. The integration of parts into a perceptual whole

d. The phenomenological field

Question 16: As a person becomes more congruent, which of the following changes is most likely to be seen?

a. Elimination of negative thoughts

b. Eradication of problem behaviors

c. Greater self-empowerment

d. Success in a failing relationship

Question 17: The study of human experience through attending to the subjective observations of individuals is:

a. Retroflection

b. Empty chair

c. Boundary disturbance

d. Phenomenology

Question 18: Perls:

a. Had a passionate belief in the holistic nature of humankind

b. Believed that human beings had the capacity and strength to grow, develop, and to become the persons that they desired

c. Asked clients to focus on why they behaved in certain ways

d. Both “a” and “b” above

Question 19: Which of the following is not a goal of existential counseling:

a. Confronting anxieties about the givens of existence

b. Developing meaning from everyday life

c. Confronting irrational thoughts that lead to difficult emotions

d. Developing inner strength

Question 20: Which statement is most descriptive of Buber’s “I-Thou ” relationship?

a. People speak about others, but seldom to them.

b. This relationship embodies a holy respect for the other person.

c. This relationship has little meaning, because there is little sense of self.

d. It shows a relationship that is condescending and not respectful.

Question 21: Accurate _______ means that the counselor is able to both understand the client’s words, feelings, and perceptions of the world and communicate that understanding successfully.

a. empathy

b. congruence

c. unconditional positive regard

d. genuineness

Question 22: Consider a client who feels that he is unlikable by others in his life. When the counseling discussion turns to how likeable the client is to the counselor or therapist, this is an example of:

a. Distracting the client

b. Empathic understanding

c. Immediacy

d. Self-actualization

Question 23: The founder of person-centered counseling is:

a. Carl Rogers

b. Victor Frankl

c. Fritz Perls

d. Rollo May

Question 24: In order to be genuine, counselors:

a. Have to practice using a “poker face”

b. Have to know themselves

c. Must use reflections of feeling

d. Should avoid analysis of transference

Question 25: Active listening includes which of the following?

a. Making good eye contact

b. Leaning toward the client

c. Facing the client

d. All of the above

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