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END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION 2ND SEMESTER 2020/2021 ACADEMIC YEAR DATE: MAY 2021 COURSE CODE: ELI 102 COURSE TITLE: INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH PROGRAM LECTURER NAME: PRINCE OPPONG DARKO INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS 2 Question 1 (READING ) Using the SQ4R Method read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow Are African -Americans appropriating the fashion and other aspects of African lifestyles, or are they rightfully reclaiming their culture? Recently , an article claimed that African -Americans are committing cultural appropriation when it comes to African culture, sparking several counterarguments and discussions about both African -American and African identity. Simply put, you cannot appropriate a culture that is, in fact, your own. Black or African -American culture, heritage and history are directly tied to Africa. Black people have mad e efforts to reclaim and assert pride in their roots for centuries, which is completely different from any incidence of cultural appropriation. Appropriation is defined by a power structure that empowers one group and marginalizes another, a dynamic that African – Americans just don’t have with Africans. White people praising the Jenner sisters for their braids while discriminating against black women in jobs and schools is cultural appropriation. Black people wearing K ente cloth stoles at graduation to exhibit pride in their African heritage in a Eurocentric country is not. African -American culture is largely rooted in West and Central Africa, the areas most affected by the trans -Atlantic slave trade and the journey of the Middle Passage. European slave traders thought enslaved Africans to be uncivilized despite them having t heir own fashion, music, religions and languages. These cultures were meant to be stripped from Africans through the institution of American slavery for generations, but aspects of those cultures were maintained and continue to be practiced by African -Amer icans even today. As the modern United States were colonized by Europeans, African – Americans were indoctrinated into a new lifestyle, but there are still many efforts to maintain distinct hallmarks of African culture. The Black Power Mo vement, taking place from roughly 1965 -1975, showcased a rise in the expression of black pride and heritage. During this time, elements of African style, such as vibrant colors and beaded jewelry, were reincorporated into African -Americans’ daily lives or special occasions. African – 3 American culture and fashion have diversified even further throughout history. In New Orleans, Creole culture has manifested from the blending of Yoruba or Vodun and Catholicism. The Afro -Punk Music Festival in Brooklyn showcases a mix of alternative music and African heritage, and is composed of a large population of Afro -descended immigrants bringing their culture to the United States. In both instances, African -Ame ricans exhibit markers of Africa while partaking in American practices as well. This is not to say that our attempts at reclaiming African culture are perfect, however. People can be misguided in finding an authentic way to explore and assert their heri tage, and misinformation is often the largest problem. Some of the major issues are treating Africa as if it is monolithic, when it is a continent with 54 countries, or referring to Egypt as the pinnacle of African civilization and the foundation for one’s connection to history and religion . Unfortunately, most African -Americans have been stripped of their family history, and thus have no connection to individual countries or tribes from where their ancestors originated. This complicates reclamation of African culture, and can oftentimes be a painful process of discovery with very poor results. As a result, different movements have emerged in an effort to compensate for that loss of cultural identity. Afrocentrism has been one of the lar gest efforts to change black consciousness to include African identity, and it has been met with both praise and criticism. The ideology evolved from the work of African – American scholars over centuries, including Marcus Garvey and Molefi Asante, and foc uses on reinterpreting history as inclusive of African contributions as well as asserting African power. “Hotep” is a more recent development, which is controversial because of its lack of scholarship as well as the fact that it often serves to be more d ivisive than unifying. Proponents often speak of having an elevated consciousness and can disparage other blacks for thinking differently. People who exhibit this ideology are sometimes referred to disparagingly as “Hotep niggas.” So what are the right steps? Wearing the Ankh on a chain or the African continent on a tiki or earrings won’t exactly do the trick. But understanding the significance of certain aspects of fashion and culture, such as piercings, tattoos, “tribal” patterns , etc. is a good start. Many have utilized Ancestry DNA or AfricanAncestry.com to find 4 our assorted countries of origin, which is another way to begin research. Ultimately, we should reach out to members of the African diaspora to explore their mosaic of cultures and identities. Connecting to African people is often prevented by perceived language and culture barriers, but it must be done in order to share our culture in a meaningful way. We should strive to reach the point where Africans are no longer sharing their culture with us, but welcoming us back to our own. a) What is the greatest problem in finding ways to reassert African heritage? Elucidate your response by supporting it with evidences from a specific context. b) What is the core of A frican -American culture? What is the main constrain on merging the different divisions of Africans? Elucidate your response by supporting it with evidences from a specific context. c) State the main crust of the article. Can you find a new title for the article? State your argument for or against the author’s thesis statement. You may adopt the author’s point of view. Question 2 (SUMMARY WRITING) Following the steps on how to write a summary below, write a summary of not more than 120 words of the passage in Question 1 above: STEP 1: Read the article carefully. STEP 2: Write down the author’s purpose for writing this article. (Why did he/she write it? What, in general, was he/she trying to tell the reader?) STEP 3: Reread the article looking for major ideas th at directly support the author’s purpose STEP 4: Summarize each major supporting idea into a single sentence. STEP 5: Using your author’s purpose as your guide, create a thesis statement, which will be a summary of the entire article. This thesis 5 st atement will be the topic sentence for your summary paragraph and must include the authors name and the title of the article. STEP 6: Combine your thesis statement with your one -sentence summaries to create a summary paragraph. Use transitional words or phrases, combine the sentences to create a smooth logical flow of ideas. Question 3 (PARAGRAPHING) Rearrange the jumbled -up sentences below into their proper order to form good paragraphs of: Topic sentence Supporting sentence Concluding sentence Provide appropriate transitional words or phrases to make the paragraphs coherent. Based on your understanding of the paragraphs, supply appropriate titles to each of them. a) Recent reports indicated that the difficulty had been settled, at least for a time . It was a surprise to read in the papers this morning that war had been declared and the actual fighting had begun. For years, there was a serious misunderstanding between the two countries. b) When wisely engaged in, it builds up resistance to infections and tones up the whole system. A painful overdose of sunburn may develop into something really serious. Calcium in the bone structure may be depleted. Caution should be exercised when one is taking a sunbath, especially if he or she is not accustomed to it . Other dangers lurk in the blazing rays of the mid -summer sun. Sunbathing is recommended by physicians as an excellent way to improve one’s physical condition. Too much exposure may be injurious to health. c) Fuel efficiency for popular vehicles… Research and development needs to be intensified to find renewable sources of energy like solar and wind power. To combat the problem of greenhouse gases, several fronts are being attacked simultaneously. 6 Question 4 (APPROACH TO ESSAY WRITING I) (Marks will be awarded for logical presentation and clarity of expression in coherent paragraphs ) Write a good narrative essay to illustrate the saying: “When purpose is not discovered, abuse is inevitable ” OR Based on your knowledge in Paragraph Writing, develop any of the paragraphs in Question 3 into an essay by adding additional paragraph s. Question 5 (APPROACH TO ESSAY WRITING II) (Marks will be awarded for logical presentation and clarity of expression in coherent paragraphs ) Technology is a very important aspect of modern -day society. Discuss the factors that makes it indispensable in our lives and the possible negative impacts. Situate your essay in these COVID -19 crises period. OR Based on your knowledge in Paragraph Writing, develop any of the paragraphs in Question 3 into an essay by adding additional paragraphs. END OF PAPER

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