Attorneys Corrections Officers

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Introduction to Social Work Second Edition

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Introduction to Social Work An Advocacy-Based Profession

Second Edition

Lisa E. Cox Stockton University

Carolyn J. Tice University of Maryland

Dennis D. Long Xavier University

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Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Cox, Lisa E., author. | Tice, Carolyn J., author. | Long, Dennis D., author.

Title: Introduction to social work : an advocacy-based profession / Lisa E. Cox, Stockton University, Carolyn J. Tice, University of Maryland, Dennis D. Long, Xavier University.

Description: Second edition. | Los Angeles : SAGE, [2019] | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017030913 | ISBN 9781506394534 (hardcover : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Social service.

Classification: LCC HV40 .C69 2019 | DDC 361.3—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017030913

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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Brief Contents 1. Preface 2. Acknowledgments 3. About the Authors 4. Part 1 Understanding Social Work

1. 1. The Social Work Profession 2. 2. The History of Social Work 3. 3. Generalist Social Work Practice 4. 4. Advocacy in Social Work

5. Part 2 Responding to Need 1. 5. Poverty and Inequality 2. 6. Family and Child Welfare 3. 7. Health Care and Health Challenges 4. 8. Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges 5. 9. Mental Health 6. 10. Substance Use and Addiction 7. 11. Helping Older Adults 8. 12. Criminal Justice

6. Part 3 Working in Changing Contexts 1. 13. Communities at Risk and Housing 2. 14. The Changing Workplace 3. 15. Veterans, Their Families, and Military Social Work 4. 16. Environmentalism 5. 17. International Social Work

7. Epilogue: Social Work and Self-Care 8. Appendix: Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social

Workers: Summary of Major Principles 9. Glossary

10. References 11. Index

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Detailed contents Preface Acknowledgments About the Authors Part 1 Understanding Social Work

1: The Social Work Profession Learning Objectives Mary Considers Social Work The Professional Social Worker

Social Work’s Unique Purpose and Goals Social Work and Human Diversity

Diversity and Social Justice Intersections of Diversity

Theory and Practice Social Work Values

The NASW Code of Ethics Professionalism Advocacy

Social Work Education Social Work Degrees

Bachelor of Social Work Master of Social Work Doctor of Philosophy in Social Work or Doctor of Social Work

Field Education Certificates and Certifications

Social Work Practice Social Work Roles and Settings Levels of Practice Social Work as a Career Opportunity

Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

2: The History of Social Work Learning Objectives

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Brian Organizes Farmworkers Social Welfare

Social Welfare Policy Conservative and Liberal Ideologies Social Control Social Justice

The Intertwined History of Social Welfare Policy and Social Work

Colonial America: 1607 to 1783 Nineteenth Century America: 1784 to 1890 The Progressive Era: 1890 to 1920 World War I: 1914 to 1918 The Great Depression: 1929 to Early 1940s Rank and File Movement World War II: 1939 to 1945 America’s War on Poverty: 1960 to 1967 Reaganomics: 1981 to 1989 Partisan Gridlock

The Limitations of Social Welfare Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

3: Generalist Social Work Practice Learning Objectives Layla Intervenes at All Levels to Help People Who Are Homeless Knowledge Base for Generalist Social Workers Theoretical Foundations of Generalist Practice

Systems Theory Ecological Perspective Empowerment Theory Strengths Perspective Evidence-Based Practice

Roles for Generalist Social Workers Levels of Generalist Practice

Social Work With Individuals (Micro Level) Social Work With Families and Groups (Mezzo or Meso Level)

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Social Work With Organizations, Communities, and Society (Macro Level)

The Change Process Engagement Assessment Planning Implementation Evaluation

Advocates for Change Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

4: Advocacy in Social Work Learning Objectives Nancy Advocates to Professionalize Social Work in Her State The Need for Professional Advocates

Power and Social Inequality The Ethics of Advocacy

Client Self-Determination Self-Interest and Advocacy Individual Benefit Versus Community Benefit Pathways to Community Benefit

Human Aspects of Helping Social Workers and Social Change

Cause and Function Responses to Hard Times Cause Advocacy Today

The Cost of Advocacy A Model for Dynamic Advocacy

The Cycle of Advocacy The Advocacy Model in Action

Tenets of Advocacy Practice and Policy Model Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Summary

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Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

Part 2 Responding to Need 5: Poverty and Inequality

Learning Objectives Steve Sees the Face of Poverty Poverty

Measures of Poverty Poverty and Inequality The Face of Poverty

Women People of Color Children People Who Are Homeless

Social Service Programs for The Those Who Are Poor Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Medicaid Supplemental Security Income Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Earned-Income Tax Credit Public Housing

Diversity and Poverty Advocacy on Behalf of the People Living in Poverty

Current Trends in Advocacy With People Who Are Poor Dynamic Advocacy and Poverty

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

The Cycle of Advocacy Your Career and Poverty Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

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6: Family and Child Welfare Learning Objectives Rosa Works to Strengthen Families for the Sake of Children Today’s Families

Diverse Family Forms Divorce Separation Blended Families Single-Parent Households Same-Sex Marriage and Parenting Marriage Equality Cohabitation

Family Problems Domestic Violence Child Maltreatment

Child Welfare Services History of Child and Family Services Parental Versus Child Rights A Global Context for Child Protection Key Child and Family Services

Social Policy and Legislation Supporting Child and Family Services Public Attitudes Toward Services for Children and Families Social Workers’ Attitudes Toward Child and Family Services

Social Work in Schools Challenges Facing School Social Workers

Violence and Bullying Economically Disadvantaged and Homeless Students Students With Physical and Mental Challenges Teen Pregnancy

Improvements in Education to Help Parents and Children

Diversity and Family and Child Welfare Advocacy on Behalf of Families and Children

Current Trends in Advocacy for Child and Family Services

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Dynamic Advocacy and Family and Child Welfare Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Family and Child Welfare Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

7: Health Care and Health Challenges Learning Objectives Gayle Practices Social Work in a Teaching Hospital Health Challenges and the American Health Care System

Threats to Americans’ Health Chronic Illness Heart Disease Stress

Health Disparities and the Uninsured Health Care Policy in the United States

Health Insurance Affordable Care Act

Health Care Trends Integrative Medicine Slow Medicine Prevention and Wellness Recovery, Rehabilitation, and Resilience Inflammation Managed Care Electronic Medical Records

Health Care and Social Work History of Health Social Work Social Workers’ Roles in Health Care Practice Health Care Settings

Emergency Rooms and Trauma and Urgent Care Centers Hospitals and Acute Care Veterans Affairs Hospitals Home Health Care

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Long-Term Care Hospice, End-of-Life, and Palliative Care Rehabilitation Services Clinics Public Health Services

Diversity and Health Care Advocacy on Behalf of People With Health Care Challenges

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Health Care Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

8: Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges Learning Objectives Joe Advocates for People With Intellectual Challenges Definitions of Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges Types of Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges

Developmental Challenges Physical or Mobility Challenges Mental/Cognitive Challenges

Stigma and Discrimination Against People With Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges Social Work With People Living With Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges

Historical Background of Services for People Living With Physical, Cognitive, or Developmental Challenges Deinstitutionalization Americans With Disabilities Act Social Work Practice With Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges

Person-First Language

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Services for Persons With Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges

Diversity and Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges Advocacy on Behalf of People With Physical, Cognitive, or Developmental Challenges

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career Working With People Who Have Physical, Cognitive, and Developmental Challenges Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

9: Mental Health Learning Objectives Joyce Seeks Knowledge to Help With Her Broad Caseload at a Mental Health Center Mental Health and Mental Illness

Definitions of Mental Health Status Normal Versus Abnormal Mental Health Mental Health Disorders and the DSM

Evolution of the Mental Health System Institutionalization and Deinstitutionalization Medicalization of Mental Illness Social Work Perspectives Mental Deficits Versus Personal Assets Mental Health Parity and the Affordable Care Act

Social Work Practice in Mental Health Social Work Roles in Mental Health Services Mental Health Literacy Mental Health Settings Digital Mental Health Information and Therapy

Diversity and Mental Health Advocacy on Behalf of People With Mental Health Issues

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment

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Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Mental Health Social Work Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

10: Substance Use and Addiction Learning Objectives Clayton Uses His Addiction Experience in Community Outreach Substance Use as a Mental Disorder

Causes of Substance Use Codependency Addictive Substances and Behaviors

Alcohol Prescription Drugs Illegal Drugs and Marijuana Anabolic Steroids Tobacco and Nicotine Food and Caffeine Gambling Sex Addiction

Policies Related to Substance Use Social Work Practice in Substance Use and Addiction

Prevention of Substance Use Disorder Treatments and Interventions for Substance Use and Addiction

Detoxification and Recovery Motivational Interviewing Alcoholics and Narcotics Anonymous Needle-Exchange Programs Methadone Treatment Programs

Diversity and Substance Use and Treatment Advocacy and Substance Use Disorder

Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

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Your Career in Substance Use and Addictions Certifications in Substance use: cadc and ladc

Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

11: Helping Older Adults Learning Objectives Emilee Adores Gerontological Social Work Aging and Older Adults

Meanings of “Aging” and “Old” Stages of Older Adulthood Longevity An Aging Populace

Gerontological Social Work Practice Evolution of Gerontological Practice Social Work Roles in Gerontology and Geriatrics Resources for Successful Aging

Living Options Day Programs Benefit Programs Culturally Competent Care of Older Adults

Issues of Aging and Old Age Biological and Physiological Aspects of Aging Cognitive and Psychological Aspects of Aging

Neurocognitive Disorders (Dementias) Depression, Mental Health, and Other Emotional Problems Substance Use/Addictions Sexual Activity Loneliness Suicide

Social Aspects of Aging Ageism Aging in Place Caregiving Long-Term Care Elder Abuse

Spiritual Aspects of Aging

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Benefits of Spirituality and Religion in Old Age Illness, Death, and Faith

Policies Affecting Older Adults Diversity and Aging

Age Class Ethnicity and Race Gender Sexual Orientation Ability Intersections of Diversity

Advocacy and Aging Economic and Social Justice Supportive Environment Human Needs and Rights Political Access

Your Career in Gerontology Summary Top 10 Key Concepts Discussion Questions Exercises Online Resources

12: Criminal Justice Learning Objectives Michelle Combats Racial and Ethnic Imbalances in the Juvenile Justice System Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

Types of Crimes The Contextual Nature of Crime The Correctional System Juvenile Justice and Corrections

Conflicting Attitudes About Those Who Commit Crimes Attitudes Toward Punishment Attitudes Toward Rehabilitation

Social Workers and the Criminal Justice System Forensic Social Work Social Work Values Regarding Criminal Justice Interactions With the Criminal Justice System

Police Courts

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Attorneys Corrections Officers

Victim Assistance Programs Deviant Behavior and Social Status Mental Health and Criminal Justice Issues Affecting Children and Youth

Exposure and Desensitization to Violent Behavior Parental Imprisonment

Diversity and Criminal Justice Specific Disparities in the Criminal Justice System

Racial Women

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