BEHAVIORISM

Chapter 13:
BEHAVIORISM

 

Zeitgeist

  • Russia from 1860 to 1917.

Introduction

  • This chapter details some of the multiple sources that led to the eventual demise of introspective psychology.

Russian Psychology

  • Russian psychology was inspired by discoveries in physiology made during the latter half of the 19th century.
  • Ivan Sechenov (1829–1905)
  • He had put in place all of the pieces they would need to discover the first empirical connections between physiology and psychology.

Russian Psychology

  • Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936)
  • Pavlov spent his early career in the single-minded pursuit of the physiology of digestion.

Russian Psychology

  • Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936)
  • Pavlovian conditioning ― (also known as Classical conditioning) the pairing in time between a neutral stimulus (e.g., any stimulus in any modality that does NOT naturally cause a consistent physiological response) and a stimulus that DOES cause a consistent physiological response (e.g., food and salivation) so that, over time, the neutral stimulus comes to cause the SAME physiological response.

Russian Psychology

  • Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936)
  • Pavlov was convinced that the only way to approach an understanding of psychology was through the elucidation of underlying physiological laws.

Russian Psychology

  • Vladimir Bekhterev (1857–1927)
  • His major book, Objective Psychology, was written in 1910.
  • He founded the Psychoneurological Institute
  • Pavlov and Bekhterev were intense competitors with each other and their personal relations were unfriendly.

American Psychology at the Turn of the 20th Century

  • Comparative psychology ― the branch of psychology that explores the behavior of all animals (including humans) and attempts to demonstrate phylogenetic linkages of those behaviors between species and assess their adaptive value.

American Psychology at the Turn of the 20th Century

  • John Broadus Watson (1878–1958)
  • He published, Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology
  • Behaviorism ― the approach to psychology spearheaded by Watson that sought to eliminate consciousness and introspection and substituted objective methods that focused on animal and human behaviors only.

American Psychology at the Turn of the 20th Century

  • John Broadus Watson (1878–1958)
  • Conditioned emotional responses ― terminology first introduced by Watson and Rayner to describe the acquisition of emotional responses in children through classical conditioning.
  • “Little Albert”
  • Watson’s refusal to be discreet in his relationship with Rayner while he was still married lead to his forced resignation for Johns Hopkins.

American Psychology at the Turn of the 20th Century

  • John Broadus Watson (1878–1958)
  • Watson’s Career after Hopkins
  • J. Walter Thompson advertising agency.
  • Watson became a vice-president of the agency four years after being hired and earned a salary astronomically higher ($70,000 per year) than any academic position of the time.
  • In addition to founding Behaviorism, Watson also contributed much to the establishment of applied psychology.

American Psychology at the Turn of the 20th Century

  • William McDougall (1871–1938)
  • Probably the most vociferous early critic of Watson was fellow psychologist, William McDougall.
  • He published a book, An Introduction to Social Psychology, in 1908.

American Psychology at the Turn of the 20th Century

  • William McDougall (1871–1938)
  • Hereditarianism ― the view that individual differences in behavior are mostly due to innate and inherited factors.
  • Environmentalism ― the view that individual differences in behavior are mostly due to experience and other environmental factors.

American Psychology at the Turn of the 20th Century

  • William McDougall (1871–1938)
  • At nearly the same time as Watson, McDougall (1912) wrote a book defining psychology as the study of behavior. His book, however, preserved an important role for introspection and free will in psychology.

American Psychology at the Turn of the 20th Century

  • The Battle of Behaviorism
  • Watson won.

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