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NEED A ONE PAGE ABSTRACT FOR THIS ARTICLE, font 12, chicago style.

Peacekeeping missions are complex and sensitive especially considering the approach that is regarded as in providing a strong focus on essential aspects which must be regarded as in having a successful process. Peacekeeping missions are aimed at handling different situations, and thus the inability to understand the root cause of a given conflict, it becomes difficult in developing an intervention which can help achieve a higher level of success. The development of a management team which is supposed to evaluate the underlying concerns is vital to consider in maintaining better outcomes. Thus the level of success or failure of peacekeeping mission is defined by the level of preparedness. There is a small difference between success and failure of any peacekeeping mission. Thus it provides a more significant commitment under which it is possible to manage improved outcomes.

Al-Bulushi, Samar. “‘Peacekeeping’ as Occupation: Managing the Market for Violent Labor in Somalia.” Transforming Anthropology (2014).

The article highlights that peacekeeping is a complex process which has integrated different approaches to maintaining high-level performance in achieving the intended outcomes. Understanding the social context has been identified as an essential factor which has a more significant influence on the level of success of failure. The article highlights a critical focus on the war on terror which has been a substantial challenge in Somalia. The African Union Peacekeeping Operation in Somalia (AMISOM) has been unable to adequately maintain peace within the country primarily due to their inability to understand the extent of the conflict in Somalia as well as the influence of the Al Shabaab militia group. A critical aspect that has been outlined in the article is the overall governance of different forces who are working together and various commands. The organization of peacekeeping groups needs to focus on essential concepts which help in managing better strategies which can help in improving the overall progress of the peacekeeping missions.

The article has provided focus on essential concepts which will be necessary for determining some of the factors that influence the success or failure of peacekeeping missions. The information highlighted in this case will be crucial in justifying my objectives which have focused on the overall organization and ability to understand the different settings under which these processes take place. I will include the information from the article in my study background to enhance my research.

Hultman, Lisa, Jacob Kathman, and Megan Shannon. “Beyond Keeping Peace: United Nations Effectiveness in the Midst of Fighting.” American Political Science Review (2014).

The article provides a key insight into the United Nations peacekeeping missions which offer a critical understanding of the success of these missions and how the level of success can be enhanced. The article highlights that peacekeeping entail diverse aspects beyond peace which need to be considered in ensuring that the chances of success are high. The United Nations peacekeeping missions are usually created as a critical mandate of the United Nations charter to help in keeping peace and performing post-conflict activities which are essential in managing better management outcomes. However, the ability of United Nations peacekeeping missions in managing ongoing violence has been a critical issue which has not been conclusively determined. Reducing the battle fled violence is crucial since it involves both parties which help in understanding the key concepts that need to be established. Civil wars in Africa have continued over the years despite the presence of United Nations peacekeeping missions. Thus the nature of the United Nation Peacekeeping mission has changed in recent past with a more focus on solving conflict rather than focusing on the existing challenges witnessed in the past.

The article provides essential background information evaluating the performance levels of the United Nations which has peacekeeping as one of its core mandates and thus understanding the level of organization within their peacekeeping mission. This information will be crucial in my research especially in understanding the underlying aspects which help in maintaining successful peacekeeping missions.

Dorussen, Han, and Theodora Ismene Gizelis. “Into the Lion’s Den: Local Responses to UN Peacekeeping.” Journal of Peace Research (2013).

The article highlights that there is a need to focus on ensuring that there is a better understanding of important elements which help in achieving better outcomes. The local response to peacekeeping plays a vital role in creating a strong commitment under which it is possible to manage better issues. There is a need to achieve higher results under which it is easier to understand essential elements which can help in maintaining a better performance level. A positive response from the locals makes it easier to ensure that there is a greater understanding of important changes which aid in attaining positive outcomes. The fact that peacekeeping missions focus on improving governance makes it a risky affair especially in situations where different communities are fighting over power and resources. The peacekeepers must ensure that they maintain neutral status which must be made clear in understanding the needs of both parties and ensure that there are development better concepts which can help achieve better outcomes. Governance has been a significant issue which must be adequately considered in maintaining positive relations. Thus a negative response among the local makes the whole process a failure because it is difficult for the United Nations peacekeepers to consolidate the locals so that they can integrate their peace strategies and achieve greater success.

The article has focused on the local response which is vital in maintaining better outcomes which help in keeping a better focus on factors that contribute to success and failure of peacekeeping missions. Thus the information will be crucial in developing my research in understanding how the response of locals influences the success or failure of the peacekeeping mission.

Hultman, Lisa, Jacob Kathman, and Megan Shannon. “United Nations peacekeeping and civilian protection in civil war.” American Journal of Political Science 57, no. 4 (2013): 875-891.

The article focuses on evaluating whether the United Nations peacekeepers protect the civilians in civil war. The wellbeing of civilians in civil war is crucial, and thus there is a need to ensure that they are adequately protected from impending danger from the conflicting sides. Thus the article highlights that it is difficult to understand whether the Peacekeeping missions consider the possibility of safeguarding civilian in times of crisis. The inability to determine these concepts makes it possible to identify essential ideas which can help understand the focus of the study. The peacekeeping missions that are composed of the military are capable of protecting civilians based on the camps that are set up and protected by the military officers. Thus the involvement of the military is crucial in ensuring the success of peacekeeping missions. Therefore successful peacekeeping missions are usually made up of multi-agency groups who focus on maintaining positive outcomes, especially when dealing with civilians. United Nations has been deploying more military and police to its peacekeeping missions with a critical focus on protecting the civilians which are vital to consider. United Nations is often characterized by failure in its missions, but it has been highly committed to protecting civilians.

The article has played a vital role in determining the influence of the military in determining the success or failure of the United Nations peacekeeping missions. The article will be crucial in improving my understanding of factors that influence the success and failure of the peacekeeping missions. I will include the article in discussing elements that define the success and failure of the peacekeeping mission with a critical focus on united nations which is the primary organization that has engaged in different missions across the globe. Understanding the approach that is employed is essential in building successful peacekeeping missions in the future.

Williams, Paul D. “Protection, resilience and empowerment: United Nations peacekeeping and violence against civilians in contemporary war zones.” Politics 33, no. 4 (2013): 287-298.

The overall development of peacekeeping missions is based on the overall understanding of important processes that help ensure that intense concentration on fundamental underlying factors which contribute to creating a strong organizational context. The article highlights that the civilian protection mandate has become a key aspect in the United Nations peacekeeping missions since 1999. This has been mainly due to a strategic emphasis on key processes which provide a more significant commitment under which better engagements can be done and help define essential measures which are necessary for improving the overall commitment to the underlying objectives. Therefore empowering local communities is a significant development which needs to be successfully integrated within learning context under which it is possible to achieve higher outcomes in overcoming violence. Working with civilians is an essential factor which defines the United Nations engagement in recent past considering the need to make overall peace development. Thus to achieve these goals, there is a need to engage a larger group of peacekeepers which is multidimensional and able to handle different situations based on the unpredictable nature of war zones.

The article has provided crucial information regarding the need to embrace local communities when dealing with violent situations. The need to establish a starting point provides a more significant commitment where it is possible to focus on the real diverse nature of war setting. This article will give a greater emphasis on my research especially in considering engaging local communities as a critical way to achieve a successful peacekeeping mission. Empowering the locals to fights adversity is an important concept that helps improve the overall understanding of important processes that help define better emphasis on better ideologies which are successfully controlling the impact of conflict.

Wood, Reed M. “Opportunities to kill or incentives for restraint? Rebel capabilities, the origins of support, and civilian victimization in a civil war.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 31, no. 5 (2014): 461-480.

The article highlights that during a civil war, power sharing is an essential factor which creates significant problems and defining a difficult environment where it is possible to understand fundamental changes that are taking place within the conflict setting. Thus managing conflict situations require the focus on controlling power so that it would be possible for the opposing sides to understand the need for change which is an important aspect to consider within a global context. The inability of a peacekeeping mission to focus on controlling power in civil were situations makes it difficult to have a successful mission. This is mainly because the parties do need to see the need to engage in peace talks when it is clear that there is no central point to the issues that are being addressed. Military power represents the primary tool that both parties focus on to be closer to a victory. Therefore it is essential to focus on critical factors that can help in creating a strong commitment where it is easier to achieve the intended goals. Different peacekeeping mission employs various strategies in establishing peace. However, it is crucial to understand essential elements which can help gain a greater understanding of important factors which define the level of conflict within a given context.

The article provides a critical emphasis on the role of power in managing conflict. This is a crucial factor especially considering how military power is often misused at the time of crisis which creates a problematic setting where peacekeeping missions are unable to make any successful development. The information obtained in this article will help in discussing the factors that define success or failure of the peacekeeping mission.

References;

Al-Bulushi, Samar. “‘Peacekeeping’ as Occupation: Managing the Market for Violent Labor in Somalia.” Transforming Anthropology (2014).

Hultman, Lisa, Jacob Kathman, and Megan Shannon. “Beyond Keeping Peace: United Nations Effectiveness in the Midst of Fighting.” American Political Science Review (2014).

Dorussen, Han, and Theodora Ismene Gizelis. “Into the Lion’s Den: Local Responses to UN Peacekeeping.” Journal of Peace Research (2013).

Hultman, Lisa, Jacob Kathman, and Megan Shannon. “United Nations peacekeeping and civilian protection in civil war.” American Journal of Political Science 57, no. 4 (2013): 875-891.

Williams, Paul D. “Protection, resilience and empowerment: United Nations peacekeeping and violence against civilians in contemporary war zones.” Politics 33, no. 4 (2013): 287-298.

Wood, Reed M. “Opportunities to kill or incentives for restraint? Rebel capabilities, the origins of support, and civilian victimization in a civil war.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 31, no. 5 (2014): 461-480.

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