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Please write a paragraph responding to the discussion bellow. Add citations and references in alphabetical order.

Nursing interventions to help Mrs. J would be increase head of bed, place oxygen with nasal canula, monitor I&O, order low sodium diet, obtain a bed side commode, start an IV, and do a medication reconciliation. Start her medications as ordered.

  1. Lasix is a diuretic and is used to ease swelling and congestion in the lungs, by getting rid of unneeded water and salt through urine. The result is it makes it easier for the heart to pump and decreases congestion in the lungs to help breathing, (WebMD, 2019).
  2. Vasotec is an ACE inhibitor which allows blood vessels to relax and widen making it easier for the heart to pump blood and prevent hypertension; it also helps the body to release water and salt, so the Lasix can get rid of them, (Cardio Smart, 2015).
  3. Lopressor is a beta-blocker that is used in conjunction with the Lasix and Vasotec to reduce mortality in CHF caused by left ventricular systolic dysfunction, by decreasing the work load of the heart, (Neher & Saframek, 2003).
  4. Morphine is an opiate that is used in CHF to “reduce preload, heart rate, and afterload, the net effect of which is a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. Morphine also has a sedative property to decrease anxiety, pulse restlessness, dyspnea, and chest pain” (Coons, McGraw, & Murali, 2011).

Four cardiovascular conditions that can lead to heart failure include: hypertension, the extra exertion can make the heart muscle stiff and to weak to pump blood; coronary heart disease, is plaque buildup in the arteries reducing blood flow and can lead to a heart attack; cardiomyopathy, heart muscle damage caused by infections, alcohol abuse or certain medications/drug abuse; heart arrhythmias, heart beats to fast or to slow cause extra work on the heart. Nurses can help prevent these by educating the patient and care givers to take medication as prescribed, exercise, stop using tobacco products, limit alcohol consumption, eat a well-balanced diet with limited salt intake and low fat, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce stress. (MayoClinic, 2019)

A problem facing older adults is polypharmacy, taking multiple amounts of medications. Nurses can help patients that are taking multiple medications by: encouraging them to use one pharmacy, this way all the medications will come from one place and the pharmacist can oversee the medication regimen and interactions; provide medication education, teach patients and caregivers about the reason for the drug, side effects and interactions; organize medications for the patient, write out a medication schedule with time medications are to be taken, name of the medicine, and how to take the medicine; instruct the patient not to take any OTC medication or herbal supplements without consulting the doctor or pharmacist first, many OTC meds and supplements can interact with prescription medication either by elevating the effects to cause adverse reactions or to decrease the absorption. (Woodruff, 2010).

CardioSmart, (2019). Heart Failure: ACE Inhibitor. American College of Cardiology. Healthwise Inc.

Retrieved from www.CardioSmart.org

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