In addition to the moral model just noted, a number of other ethical decision-making models exist (Neukrug, 2016). One hands-on, practical, problem-solving model espoused by Corey, Corey, and Corey (2019) suggests that the practitioner go through the following eight steps when making complex ethical decisions: 1. Identify the problem or dilemma 2. Identify the potential issues involved 3. Review the relevant ethical guidelines 4. Know the applicable laws and regulations 5. Obtain consultation 6. Consider possible and probable courses of action 7. Enumerate the consequences of various decisions 8. Decide on what appears to be the best course of action Finally, in addition to the moral and practical models mentioned earlier, some suggest that regardless of the approach one takes in ethical decision-making, the ability to make wise ethical decisions may well be influenced by the clinician’s level of ethical, moral, and cognitive development (Lambie, Hagedor, & Ieva, 2010; Levitt & Moorhead, 2013) (see Exercise 2.1). Those who are at higher levels of cognitive development, they state, view ethical decision-making in more complex ways than others. Certainly, this has broad implications for the training that takes place in clinical programs, as it would be hoped that students are challenged to make decisions that are comprehensive and thoughtful (McAuliffe & Eriksen, 2010).
Neukrug, Edward S.. Essentials of Testing and Assessment: A Practical Guide for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists, Enhanced (p. 28). Cengage Learning. Kindle Edition.