COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY

Fifth Edition

COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY

John Moritsugu Pacific Lutheran University

Elizabeth Vera Loyola University Chicago

Frank Y. Wong Emory University

Karen Grover Duffy State University of New York, Geneseo

 

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First published 2014, 2010, 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Published 2016 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10017, USA

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ISBN: 9780205255627 (pbk)

Cover Designer: Karen Noferi

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Duffy, Karen Grover. Community psychology.—Fifth edition / John Moritsugu, Pacific Lutheran University, Elizabeth Vera, Loyola

University Chicago, Frank Y. Wong, Emory University, Karen Grover Duffy, State University of New York, Geneseo. pages cm

Revision of: Community psychology / John Moritsugu, Frank Y. Wong, Karen Grover Duffy.—4th ed.—Boston : Allyn & Bacon, ©2010. ISBN-13: 978-0-205-25562-7 ISBN-10: 0-205-25562-0

1. Community psychology. I. Moritsugu, John. II. Vera, Elizabeth, 1967– III. Wong, Frank Y., 1958– IV. Title. RA790.55.D84 2013

362.2—dc23

2013008404

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Part I

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

CONTENTS Introductory Concepts

INTRODUCTION: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Historical Background

Social Movements

Swampscott

What Is Community Psychology?

Fundamental Principles

A Respect for Diversity

The Importance of Context and Environment

Empowerment

The Ecological Perspective/Multiple Levels of Intervention

▶ CASE IN POINT 1.1 Clinical Psychology, Community Psychology: What’s the Difference?

Other Central Concepts

Prevention Rather than Therapy

▶ CASE IN POINT 1.2 Does Primary Prevention Work?

Social Justice

Emphasis on Strengths and Competencies

Social Change and Action Research

Interdisciplinary Perspectives

▶ CASE IN POINT 1.3 Social Psychology, Community Psychology, and Homelessness

▶ CASE IN POINT 1.4 The Importance of Place

A Psychological Sense of Community

Training in Community Psychology

Plan of the Text

Summary

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHODS

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Chapter 3

The Essence of Scientific Research

Why Do Scientific Research?

What Is Scientific Research?

The Fidelity of Scientific Research

▶ CASE IN POINT 2.1 A Theory of Substance Abuse and HIV/STDs that Incorporates the Principles of Community Psychology

Traditional Scientific Research Methods

Population and Sampling

Correlational Research ■ BOX 2.1 Research across Time

Experimental Research

Quasi-experimental Research

Alternative Research Methods Used in Community Psychology

Ethnography

▶ CASE IN POINT 2.2 Case Study of a Consumer-Run Agency

Geographic Information Systems

Epidemiology

Needs Assessment and Program Evaluation

▶ CASE IN POINT 2.3 Needs Assessment of a Hmong Community

Participatory Action Research

Cautions and Considerations Regarding Community Research

The Politics of Science and the Science of Politics

Ethics: Cultural Relativism or Universal Human Rights?

The Continuum of Research: The Value of Multiple Measures

▶ CASE IN POINT 2.4 HIV Intervention Testing and the Use of Placebos

The Importance of Cultural Sensitivity

Community Researchers as Consultants

Summary

STRESS AND RESILIENCE

The Stress Model and the Definition of Community Psychology

Stress

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Part II

Chapter 4

Stressor Events

Stress as a Process

Stress Reaction

▶ CASE IN POINT 3.1 Contemporary Racism

Coping

Social Support

▶ CASE IN POINT 3.2 Mexican American College Student Acculturation Stress, Social Support, and Coping

Resilience

At-Risk to Resilient

The Kauai Longitudinal Studies

A Useful Model

The Fourth Wave

Summary

Social Change and Intervention

THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL CHANGE

Reasons for Social Change

Diverse Populations

Social Justice: A Moral Imperative for Social Change

The Perception of Declining or Scarce Resources

▶ CASE IN POINT 4.1 Funding Dilemmas for Nonprofit Organizations

Accountability

Knowledge-Based and Technological Change

Community Conflict

Dissatisfaction with Traditional Services

Desire for Diversity of Solutions

▶ CASE IN POINT 4.2 Community Conflict: Adversity Turns to Opportunity

Types of Social Change

Spontaneous or Unplanned Social Change

Planned Social Change

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Chapter 5

▶ CASE IN POINT 4.3 Working with an Indigenous People Experiencing Change

Issues Related to Planned Change

Difficulties Bringing About Change

Summary

COMMUNITY INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

Creating Planned Change

Citizen Participation

▶ CASE IN POINT 5.1 The Community Development Society

Community Participation and Prevention

Who Participates?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Citizen Participation

Networking/Collaboration

▶ CASE IN POINT 5.2 Online Networks for Ethnic Minority Issues

Issues Related to Networks

Advantages and Disadvantages of Networks

Consultation

Issues Related to Consultants

Advantages and Disadvantages of Consultants

Community Education and Information Dissemination

Information Dissemination

Community Education

Issues Related to Information Dissemination

Issues Related to Community Education

▶ CASE IN POINT 5.3 The Choices Program

Public Policy

▶ CASE IN POINT 5.4 Rape Crisis Centers: A National Examination

Issues Related to the Use of Public Policy

Advantages and Disadvantages of Public Policy Changes

A Skill Set for Practice

Summary

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Part III

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Community Psychology Applied to Various Settings

THE MENTAL HEALTH SYSTEM

Epidemiological Estimates of Mental Illness

Models of Mental Health and Mental Disorder

The Medical Model

The Psychoanalytic Model

The Behavioral Model: The Social-Learning Approach

The Humanistic Model

▶ CASE IN POINT 6.1 Mental Health Care Professionals

The Evolution of the Mental Health System

Brief History of Mental Health Care

▶ CASE IN POINT 6.2 Rosenhan’s Classic Study of Hospital Patients’ Stigmatization

Deinstitutionalization

The Social Context to Deinstitutionalization

Early Alternatives to Institutionalization

Measuring “Success” of Deinstitutionalized Persons

Beyond Deinstitutionalization

“Model” Programs for Individuals with Mental Disorders

Intensive Case Management

Wraparound

▶ CASE IN POINT 6.3 Wraparound Milwaukee

Early Childhood Experiences and Prevention

The Battle Continues: Where Do We Go from Here?

Summary

SOCIAL AND HUMAN SERVICES IN THE COMMUNITY

Historical Notes about Social Welfare in Western Society

▶ CASE IN POINT 7.1 Poverty in America

▶ CASE IN POINT 7.2 The Grameen Bank

Specific Social Issues and Social Services

Child Maltreatment

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Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Intimate Partner Violence

Teen Pregnancy

The Elderly

Homelessness

▶ CASE IN POINT 7.3 How Do Cultures Differ on the Issue of Homelessness?

Summary

SCHOOLS, CHILDREN, AND THE COMMUNITY

The Early Childhood Environment

Child Care

Enrichment Education and Early Intervention

Self-Care Children

The Public Schools

Desegregation, Ethnicity, and Prejudice in the Schools

The Schools and Adolescents

▶ CASE IN POINT 8.1 Dual-Language Immersion Programs

▶ CASE IN POINT 8.2 Children of Divorce

Summary

LAW, CRIME, AND THE COMMUNITY

The Traditional Justice System

Introduction

Crime and Criminals

▶ CASE IN POINT 9.1 Neighborhood Youth Services

Jails and Prisons

Victims and Fear of Being Victimized

Enforcement Agencies

Addressing Justice System Issues

Primary Prevention

▶ CASE IN POINT 9.2 Working with At-Risk Youth

Secondary Prevention

▶ CASE IN POINT 9.3 Huikahi: The Restorative Circle

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Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Summary

THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM

The American Healthcare System

National Health Indicators

Observations on the System

Community Psychology and the Healthcare System

Prevention over Remediation

Shifting Focus from Individuals to Groups, Neighborhoods, and Systems

Building Systems

Increasing Accessibility

▶ CASE IN POINT 10.1 Teen Pregnancy Prevention

Social Support and Health

Summary

COMMUNITY HEALTH AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE

Tobacco

Extent of the Problem

Antitobacco Efforts

Community-Based Approaches

Alcohol

Extent of the Problem

Alcohol Safety Laws

A Community Psychology Approach

Illicit Drugs

Extent of the Problem

Possible Solutions and Challenges

▶ CASE IN POINT 11.1 Prescription Drug Misuse: Risk Factors for Problem Users

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Extent of the Problem

Possible Solutions and Challenges

HIV and AIDS

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Chapter 12

Overview

Extent of the Problem

Complexities and Controversies

Possible Solutions: Community-Based Approaches

▶ CASE IN POINT 11.2 Evaluation and Implementation of STD/HIV Community Intervention Program in Lima, Peru

▶ CASE IN POINT 11.3 The Bilingual Peer Advocate (BPA) Program

Obesity

Scope of the Problem

Community Prevention Efforts

Summary

COMMUNITY/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

What Do Organizational and Community Psychology Share?

Organizational Psychology, Organizational Behavior

Ecology and Systems Orientation

Distinctions

Everyday Organizational Issues

Stress

Stress Reduction

Burnout

Organizational Culture

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

Work and Self-Concept

Dealing with a Diverse Workforce

Other Ecological Conditions

▶ CASE IN POINT 12.1 Consulting on Diversity

Traditional Techniques for Managing People

Compensation Packages

Rules and Regulations

Overview of Organizational Change

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Part IV

Chapter 13

Reasons for Change

Issues Related to Organizational Change

Changing Organizational Elements

Leadership

Reorganization

Quality of Work Life Programs

Team Building

▶ CASE IN POINT 12.2 Managing Change

Summary

Where to from Here?

THE FUTURE OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY

The Establishment of Institutional Markers

Growing Beyond National Boundaries

A Useful Paradigm

Commentaries

Answering the Present and Future Needs of Society

Appreciation of Differences and the Search for Compassion

Sustainability and Environmental Concerns

Disparities in Opportunity for Health, Education, and Economic Success

Aging and End of Life

Summary

Final Reflections

Bibliography

Name Index

Subject Index

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PREFACE

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NEW TO THIS EDITION Heightened readability: Many chapters have been re-written with the student reader in mind. Updated literature reviews: You will find references to new terminology, innovative ways of studying the community, new studies of the community as well as new areas of study. Consideration of healthcare disparities: What are these discrepancies in our care? What is being done to understand and to address them? New materials on obesity prevention: Is obesity on the rise? What are community-based solutions to preventing obesity in children? Added section on interpersonal violence: Theories that attempt to explain violence in intimate relationships are presented along with community interventions, aimed to prevent this problem. Addition of healthy aging considerations: What helps adults enter later stages of life in healthy ways? In what ways are the elderly vulnerable to abuse and exploitation? New considerations of bilingual education and the community: In what ways are schools attempting to integrate immigrants into the community? Methods that view immigrant communities as assets are discussed.

Community psychology grows from an optimism regarding human nature and a search for truth and meaning in the world. It believes in our basic need for each other and our biologically grounded ability to feel compassion and to desire to help. As community psychologists, we are motivated to improve the conditions for the whole, ameliorating the negative and promoting the positive (Cowen, 2000; Shinn & Toohey, 2003).

There is an appreciation for our individual differences and the diversity of our backgrounds, and at the same time for the commonalities that bind us together. We are able to indulge our curiosity about the world and its complexities.

Driven by questions about ourselves, and the collective entities in which we find ourselves, we derive an understanding that is both complex and nuanced. Simple answers may be easiest, but at the basis to the nature of things, we sense complexity, interactions, and a richness of factors that influence the natural social ecologies we study and in which we work. We believe the answers are to be found both in the empirical data that describe our human and social conditions and in the expression of our values and our spirit (Kelly, 2006).

The direction of our answers is toward the transactional nature of our world. We influence each other for better or worse. And so community theory is driven not just by the individual and his or her personality, but also by the influences of context (Trickett, 2009). It is a humble position to take with regard to our world and our influence in that world.

We have tried to succinctly capture the basic principles, themes, and practices in community psychology. The rest is exposition on the various systems in which these

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principles, themes and practices can be applied. In the interdisciplinary spirit of community psychology (Rappaport, 1977), the programs and research in these content areas are gathered from a variety of sources within community psychology, outside community psychology but within the discipline (counseling, clinical, educational and school psychology), and finally outside of psychology itself. Among the works cited, you, the reader, might find social work, public health, education, public policy, criminology/police sciences, sociology, and urban planning. This is reflective of where community psychologists are at work.

The text is divided into four parts. The first provides the historical, theoretical, and research framework for the field. Called to action, we are guided by principles of empowerment, ecology, appreciation of diversity, stress, and resilience. The second section looks at social change and how community psychologists might help in that change. The third section examines the variety of systems in which community psychology principles could be applied. The fourth and final section explores community psychology at present and into the future. What has been accomplished and what are potential areas to grow in? And what bits of wisdom might those who have worked in the field provide?

At the beginning of each chapter are quotes from others who pose a challenge or reflection, which may play out a theme within that chapter. Also at the beginning is an opening story or stories, providing an example of what is going on in the chapter. Each chapter is outlined so that students can expect what they are about to read and formulate questions related to the topics listed. Within the chapters are Case in Point examples of how the theory and research are being applied in the community.

Key concepts have been highlighted by boldface in all chapters. And finally, each chapter concludes with a summary. Students are advised to read this summary after they first peruse the outline and chapter so as to direct their attention to important issues in each chapter and to better organize their studying.

We hope that you find both information and a way of thinking about your psychological world emerging from this text. Community psychology is a body of knowledge, a theoretical framework, and a practice of psychology that relates to building a better world. Topics include fellowship and caring, compassion, support, coping, and succeeding against the odds.

Community psychology is also a way of conceptualizing the world and ourselves in it. You will see how thinking contextually, transactionally, systemically, and ecologically might shift your construction of problems and solutions.

Our thanks to Kristin Landon, who helped on the final editing, and all at Allyn & Bacon who facilitated in the completion of this project. Thanks also to the Pearson reviewers Edison Trickett, Peter Wollheim, and Rebecca Francis.

JM & EV

As one of the coauthors on this text, I thank the original authors, Karen Duffy and Frank Wong, for their original invitation to join them in this work. I also welcome Elizabeth Vera, the newest coauthor. She brings a wealth of expertise in prevention, social justice, and

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counseling, as well as work with diverse populations. Besides her research and practice acumen, she is a clear and effective writer. I could not have done the book without her.

I continue to thank my wife and fellow psychologist, Jane Harmon Jacobs, whose positive attitude and support helped in the good times and the hard times, and my son, Michael Moritsugu, who provided informed and very real help in the completion of the text.

We are the product of our own intellectual and emotional communities. Among my early advisors and teachers were Ralph Barocas and Emory Cowen from my graduate school days at the University of Rochester. I thank them for their support and challenges during my time in the snow country of upstate New York and throughout my career.

Among the many colleagues I found in graduate school, three in particular have remained helpful in continuing to engage me in discussions about the field of community psychology. I thank Leonard Jason, David Glenwick, and Robert Felner for their fellowship and connection over the years. Their rich and enlightening research and writing in the field speak for themselves.

JM

I thank my family and colleagues for their support in my professional endeavors, which laid the groundwork for my contributions to the text. I am also indebted to the communities with whom I have collaborated over the years in efforts to promote the positive and ameliorat

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