John Moritsugu Pacific Lutheran University
Elizabeth Vera Loyola University Chicago
Frank Y. Wong Emory University
Karen Grover Duffy State University of New York, Geneseo
First published 2014, 2010, 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Published 2016 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10017, USA
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ISBN: 9780205255627 (pbk)
Cover Designer: Karen Noferi
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Duffy, Karen Grover. Community psychology.—Fifth edition / John Moritsugu, Pacific Lutheran University, Elizabeth Vera, Loyola
University Chicago, Frank Y. Wong, Emory University, Karen Grover Duffy, State University of New York, Geneseo. pages cm
Revision of: Community psychology / John Moritsugu, Frank Y. Wong, Karen Grover Duffy.—4th ed.—Boston : Allyn & Bacon, ©2010. ISBN-13: 978-0-205-25562-7 ISBN-10: 0-205-25562-0
1. Community psychology. I. Moritsugu, John. II. Vera, Elizabeth, 1967– III. Wong, Frank Y., 1958– IV. Title. RA790.55.D84 2013
CONTENTS Introductory Concepts
INTRODUCTION: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
What Is Community Psychology?
A Respect for Diversity
The Importance of Context and Environment
The Ecological Perspective/Multiple Levels of Intervention
▶ CASE IN POINT 1.1 Clinical Psychology, Community Psychology: What’s the Difference?
Other Central Concepts
Prevention Rather than Therapy
▶ CASE IN POINT 1.2 Does Primary Prevention Work?
Emphasis on Strengths and Competencies
Social Change and Action Research
▶ CASE IN POINT 1.3 Social Psychology, Community Psychology, and Homelessness
▶ CASE IN POINT 1.4 The Importance of Place
A Psychological Sense of Community
Training in Community Psychology
Plan of the Text
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHODS
The Essence of Scientific Research
Why Do Scientific Research?
What Is Scientific Research?
The Fidelity of Scientific Research
▶ CASE IN POINT 2.1 A Theory of Substance Abuse and HIV/STDs that Incorporates the Principles of Community Psychology
Traditional Scientific Research Methods
Population and Sampling
Correlational Research ■ BOX 2.1 Research across Time
Alternative Research Methods Used in Community Psychology
▶ CASE IN POINT 2.2 Case Study of a Consumer-Run Agency
Geographic Information Systems
Needs Assessment and Program Evaluation
▶ CASE IN POINT 2.3 Needs Assessment of a Hmong Community
Participatory Action Research
Cautions and Considerations Regarding Community Research
The Politics of Science and the Science of Politics
Ethics: Cultural Relativism or Universal Human Rights?
The Continuum of Research: The Value of Multiple Measures
▶ CASE IN POINT 2.4 HIV Intervention Testing and the Use of Placebos
The Importance of Cultural Sensitivity
Community Researchers as Consultants
STRESS AND RESILIENCE
The Stress Model and the Definition of Community Psychology
Stress as a Process
▶ CASE IN POINT 3.1 Contemporary Racism
▶ CASE IN POINT 3.2 Mexican American College Student Acculturation Stress, Social Support, and Coping
At-Risk to Resilient
The Kauai Longitudinal Studies
A Useful Model
The Fourth Wave
Social Change and Intervention
THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL CHANGE
Reasons for Social Change
Social Justice: A Moral Imperative for Social Change
The Perception of Declining or Scarce Resources
▶ CASE IN POINT 4.1 Funding Dilemmas for Nonprofit Organizations
Knowledge-Based and Technological Change
Dissatisfaction with Traditional Services
Desire for Diversity of Solutions
▶ CASE IN POINT 4.2 Community Conflict: Adversity Turns to Opportunity
Types of Social Change
Spontaneous or Unplanned Social Change
Planned Social Change
▶ CASE IN POINT 4.3 Working with an Indigenous People Experiencing Change
Issues Related to Planned Change
Difficulties Bringing About Change
COMMUNITY INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
Creating Planned Change
▶ CASE IN POINT 5.1 The Community Development Society
Community Participation and Prevention
Advantages and Disadvantages of Citizen Participation
▶ CASE IN POINT 5.2 Online Networks for Ethnic Minority Issues
Issues Related to Networks
Advantages and Disadvantages of Networks
Issues Related to Consultants
Advantages and Disadvantages of Consultants
Community Education and Information Dissemination
Issues Related to Information Dissemination
Issues Related to Community Education
▶ CASE IN POINT 5.3 The Choices Program
▶ CASE IN POINT 5.4 Rape Crisis Centers: A National Examination
Issues Related to the Use of Public Policy
Advantages and Disadvantages of Public Policy Changes
A Skill Set for Practice
Community Psychology Applied to Various Settings
THE MENTAL HEALTH SYSTEM
Epidemiological Estimates of Mental Illness
Models of Mental Health and Mental Disorder
The Medical Model
The Psychoanalytic Model
The Behavioral Model: The Social-Learning Approach
The Humanistic Model
▶ CASE IN POINT 6.1 Mental Health Care Professionals
The Evolution of the Mental Health System
Brief History of Mental Health Care
▶ CASE IN POINT 6.2 Rosenhan’s Classic Study of Hospital Patients’ Stigmatization
The Social Context to Deinstitutionalization
Early Alternatives to Institutionalization
Measuring “Success” of Deinstitutionalized Persons
“Model” Programs for Individuals with Mental Disorders
Intensive Case Management
▶ CASE IN POINT 6.3 Wraparound Milwaukee
Early Childhood Experiences and Prevention
The Battle Continues: Where Do We Go from Here?
SOCIAL AND HUMAN SERVICES IN THE COMMUNITY
Historical Notes about Social Welfare in Western Society
▶ CASE IN POINT 7.1 Poverty in America
▶ CASE IN POINT 7.2 The Grameen Bank
Specific Social Issues and Social Services
Intimate Partner Violence
▶ CASE IN POINT 7.3 How Do Cultures Differ on the Issue of Homelessness?
SCHOOLS, CHILDREN, AND THE COMMUNITY
The Early Childhood Environment
Enrichment Education and Early Intervention
The Public Schools
Desegregation, Ethnicity, and Prejudice in the Schools
The Schools and Adolescents
▶ CASE IN POINT 8.1 Dual-Language Immersion Programs
▶ CASE IN POINT 8.2 Children of Divorce
LAW, CRIME, AND THE COMMUNITY
The Traditional Justice System
Crime and Criminals
▶ CASE IN POINT 9.1 Neighborhood Youth Services
Jails and Prisons
Victims and Fear of Being Victimized
Addressing Justice System Issues
▶ CASE IN POINT 9.2 Working with At-Risk Youth
▶ CASE IN POINT 9.3 Huikahi: The Restorative Circle
THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM
The American Healthcare System
National Health Indicators
Observations on the System
Community Psychology and the Healthcare System
Prevention over Remediation
Shifting Focus from Individuals to Groups, Neighborhoods, and Systems
▶ CASE IN POINT 10.1 Teen Pregnancy Prevention
Social Support and Health
COMMUNITY HEALTH AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Extent of the Problem
Extent of the Problem
Alcohol Safety Laws
A Community Psychology Approach
Extent of the Problem
Possible Solutions and Challenges
▶ CASE IN POINT 11.1 Prescription Drug Misuse: Risk Factors for Problem Users
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Extent of the Problem
Possible Solutions and Challenges
HIV and AIDS
Extent of the Problem
Complexities and Controversies
Possible Solutions: Community-Based Approaches
▶ CASE IN POINT 11.2 Evaluation and Implementation of STD/HIV Community Intervention Program in Lima, Peru
▶ CASE IN POINT 11.3 The Bilingual Peer Advocate (BPA) Program
Scope of the Problem
Community Prevention Efforts
What Do Organizational and Community Psychology Share?
Organizational Psychology, Organizational Behavior
Ecology and Systems Orientation
Everyday Organizational Issues
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Work and Self-Concept
Dealing with a Diverse Workforce
Other Ecological Conditions
▶ CASE IN POINT 12.1 Consulting on Diversity
Traditional Techniques for Managing People
Rules and Regulations
Overview of Organizational Change
Reasons for Change
Issues Related to Organizational Change
Changing Organizational Elements
Quality of Work Life Programs
▶ CASE IN POINT 12.2 Managing Change
Where to from Here?
THE FUTURE OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
The Establishment of Institutional Markers
Growing Beyond National Boundaries
A Useful Paradigm
Answering the Present and Future Needs of Society
Appreciation of Differences and the Search for Compassion
Sustainability and Environmental Concerns
Disparities in Opportunity for Health, Education, and Economic Success
Aging and End of Life
NEW TO THIS EDITION Heightened readability: Many chapters have been re-written with the student reader in mind. Updated literature reviews: You will find references to new terminology, innovative ways of studying the community, new studies of the community as well as new areas of study. Consideration of healthcare disparities: What are these discrepancies in our care? What is being done to understand and to address them? New materials on obesity prevention: Is obesity on the rise? What are community-based solutions to preventing obesity in children? Added section on interpersonal violence: Theories that attempt to explain violence in intimate relationships are presented along with community interventions, aimed to prevent this problem. Addition of healthy aging considerations: What helps adults enter later stages of life in healthy ways? In what ways are the elderly vulnerable to abuse and exploitation? New considerations of bilingual education and the community: In what ways are schools attempting to integrate immigrants into the community? Methods that view immigrant communities as assets are discussed.
Community psychology grows from an optimism regarding human nature and a search for truth and meaning in the world. It believes in our basic need for each other and our biologically grounded ability to feel compassion and to desire to help. As community psychologists, we are motivated to improve the conditions for the whole, ameliorating the negative and promoting the positive (Cowen, 2000; Shinn & Toohey, 2003).
There is an appreciation for our individual differences and the diversity of our backgrounds, and at the same time for the commonalities that bind us together. We are able to indulge our curiosity about the world and its complexities.
Driven by questions about ourselves, and the collective entities in which we find ourselves, we derive an understanding that is both complex and nuanced. Simple answers may be easiest, but at the basis to the nature of things, we sense complexity, interactions, and a richness of factors that influence the natural social ecologies we study and in which we work. We believe the answers are to be found both in the empirical data that describe our human and social conditions and in the expression of our values and our spirit (Kelly, 2006).
The direction of our answers is toward the transactional nature of our world. We influence each other for better or worse. And so community theory is driven not just by the individual and his or her personality, but also by the influences of context (Trickett, 2009). It is a humble position to take with regard to our world and our influence in that world.
We have tried to succinctly capture the basic principles, themes, and practices in community psychology. The rest is exposition on the various systems in which these
principles, themes and practices can be applied. In the interdisciplinary spirit of community psychology (Rappaport, 1977), the programs and research in these content areas are gathered from a variety of sources within community psychology, outside community psychology but within the discipline (counseling, clinical, educational and school psychology), and finally outside of psychology itself. Among the works cited, you, the reader, might find social work, public health, education, public policy, criminology/police sciences, sociology, and urban planning. This is reflective of where community psychologists are at work.
The text is divided into four parts. The first provides the historical, theoretical, and research framework for the field. Called to action, we are guided by principles of empowerment, ecology, appreciation of diversity, stress, and resilience. The second section looks at social change and how community psychologists might help in that change. The third section examines the variety of systems in which community psychology principles could be applied. The fourth and final section explores community psychology at present and into the future. What has been accomplished and what are potential areas to grow in? And what bits of wisdom might those who have worked in the field provide?
At the beginning of each chapter are quotes from others who pose a challenge or reflection, which may play out a theme within that chapter. Also at the beginning is an opening story or stories, providing an example of what is going on in the chapter. Each chapter is outlined so that students can expect what they are about to read and formulate questions related to the topics listed. Within the chapters are Case in Point examples of how the theory and research are being applied in the community.
Key concepts have been highlighted by boldface in all chapters. And finally, each chapter concludes with a summary. Students are advised to read this summary after they first peruse the outline and chapter so as to direct their attention to important issues in each chapter and to better organize their studying.
We hope that you find both information and a way of thinking about your psychological world emerging from this text. Community psychology is a body of knowledge, a theoretical framework, and a practice of psychology that relates to building a better world. Topics include fellowship and caring, compassion, support, coping, and succeeding against the odds.
Community psychology is also a way of conceptualizing the world and ourselves in it. You will see how thinking contextually, transactionally, systemically, and ecologically might shift your construction of problems and solutions.
Our thanks to Kristin Landon, who helped on the final editing, and all at Allyn & Bacon who facilitated in the completion of this project. Thanks also to the Pearson reviewers Edison Trickett, Peter Wollheim, and Rebecca Francis.
JM & EV
As one of the coauthors on this text, I thank the original authors, Karen Duffy and Frank Wong, for their original invitation to join them in this work. I also welcome Elizabeth Vera, the newest coauthor. She brings a wealth of expertise in prevention, social justice, and
counseling, as well as work with diverse populations. Besides her research and practice acumen, she is a clear and effective writer. I could not have done the book without her.
I continue to thank my wife and fellow psychologist, Jane Harmon Jacobs, whose positive attitude and support helped in the good times and the hard times, and my son, Michael Moritsugu, who provided informed and very real help in the completion of the text.
We are the product of our own intellectual and emotional communities. Among my early advisors and teachers were Ralph Barocas and Emory Cowen from my graduate school days at the University of Rochester. I thank them for their support and challenges during my time in the snow country of upstate New York and throughout my career.
Among the many colleagues I found in graduate school, three in particular have remained helpful in continuing to engage me in discussions about the field of community psychology. I thank Leonard Jason, David Glenwick, and Robert Felner for their fellowship and connection over the years. Their rich and enlightening research and writing in the field speak for themselves.
I thank my family and colleagues for their support in my professional endeavors, which laid the groundwork for my contributions to the text. I am also indebted to the communities with whom I have collaborated over the years in efforts to promote the positive and ameliorat