Complete 6 pages APA formatted article: The Cognitive and Psychological Development of a Child. Children at this stage learn behavior that allows them to be independent of their parents. Their learning is mostly accomplished by imitating or mimicking their parents, other members of their family, or their playmates (Bastable, 2003). Their physical development follows the pattern started during their infancy years, but their movements and skills are more refined and focused. Guidance and supervision of their movements are still very important at this stage because preschoolers lack sufficient judgment about their movements. Their sense of safety and security in their actions lack sufficient discretion, hence they are likely to experience falls and tumbles. The preschooler is also still very much in the self-centered or egocentric stage. Other viewpoints are often ignored by these children. Sexual identity and curiosity also set in at this stage as preschoolers become more aware of their body and their different body parts. They fear pain and body mutilation. they see health as a reward for good behavior and as a go-signal for them to play with their friends. on the other hand, they see illness as a punishment for some wrong they have committed (Bastable, 2003).
The toddler “has the capacity for basic reasoning, has the beginnings of memory, and begins to develop a sense of understanding of the concept of causality (what causes something to happen)” (Bastable, 2006). Persistent questions of why abound during this stage as the child are now developing a natural curiosity and awareness of the world. These children start to retain memories of events that are happening in their daily lives. they also start to retain many of the things being taught to them. They also understand basic reasoning and explanations given to them by their parents and their teachers. This stage of a child’s development is labeled by Piaget as the .preoperational stage.