Counseling Ethics and Decision Making




Counseling Ethics and Decision Making

3rd Edition, 2007 ISBN: 10: 0131710052; 13: 9780131710054

Robert R. Cottone, University of Missouri, St. Louis Vilia M. Tarvydas, University of Iowa

Pearson/ Merrill

925 N. Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, CA 92701 Phone: 714-547-9625 Fax: 714-547-5777


PSY511 Professional Ethics and the Law

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Final Examination


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. When people are just concerned with compliance with laws or professional standards (e.g. codes of ethics), what level of ethics is involved?

a. aspirational b. mandatory c. principled d. unprincipled

2. Which one of the following statements is NOT CONSISTENT with the philosophy of Nietzsche?

a. the theory of evolution b. we should be assisting the development of survival of the fittest c. we should be directed by pity d. the weak and the failures should perish

3. When there is a discussion of “theory” as related to judgments of right and wrong, the discussion is probably one of:

a. philosophical morality b. professional ethics c. common morality d. philosophical ethics e. none of the above

4. Which of the following is NOT listed in your text as part of the professional structure which governs ethics for counselors?

a. the courts b. colleges and universities c. professional organizations that maintain and enforce a mandatory code of ethics d. professional regulatory bodies that are enforcers of mandatory codes e. none of the above

5. There are different types of accreditation. Beyond a college or university’s accreditation to offer degrees, there is accreditation for programs, typically called:

a. diplomate accreditation b. professional accreditation c. specialty accreditation d. board approval




Final Examination

PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

6. The oldest and most widely recognized professional counseling specialty designation is the credential. a. A.C.A. b. ABPS c. C.R.C.C. d. C.R.C. e. M.F.T.

7. A voluntary means for professionals to identify themselves as trained and qualified specialists is:

a. licensure b. certification c. internship d. accreditation e. none of the above

8. Which professional(s) can NOT legitimately, by nature of standard training and practice, perform psychometric assessment?

a. social worker b. counselor c. psychologist d. marriage and family therapist e. none of the above

9. The ABPP and ABPS credential applies to which field of mental health specialty? a. Marriage and Family Therapy b. Psychology c. Psychiatry d. Social Work e. Psychiatric Nursing

10. Which of the following degrees does NOT indicate legitimate doctoral level training to be a licensed Psychologist?

a. Ph.D. b. Ed.D. c. Psy.D d. none of the above



Final Examination


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

11. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

a. Counselors can ethically practice any specialty in counseling, even without appropriate specialty training, if it is within the scope of practice of their license. b. Cottone and Tarvydas believe the terms “dual” and “multiple” relationships should be abandoned. c. Avoiding detrimental relationships with clients relates to the ethical principle of justice more than nonmaleficence. d. People who refuse recommended counseling services must be coerced.

12. When a judge orders an ex offender to undergo therapy as part of the ex- offender’s rehabilitation, this is called:

a. expert order of protection b. compulsory therapy c. professional responsibility d. legal privilege

13. Professional competence by definition involves:

a. the quality of provided services b. boundaries of professional activity c. confidentiality d. informed consent e. a and b

14. Having sex with a client is:

a. unethical counseling practice b. only allowed after the client and therapist relationship has been terminated for at least one year c. acceptable with a written agreement and a waiver of ethical rights d. none of the above

15. The Tarasoff decision refers to what? a. The duty of an ethics board to suspend licensure after a clear ethics violation. b. The duty of a therapist to keep confidentiality even when called as a witness in court cases. c. The duty of a therapist to break confidentiality when someone makes a direct threat. d. none of the above




Final Examination

PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

16. A counselor’s primary responsibility is to the:

a. third party if they are the ones paying the bill b. judge who subpoenas a case file c. family of a competent adult client seen in individual counseling d. client, and the client only e. all of the above

17. The term that pertains to the legal right of clients to prevent their confidential communications from being revealed in legal proceedings is:

a. privacy b. confidentiality c. privileged communication d. informed consent

18. When assessing a client’s potential for harm, Beauchamp and Childress recommend the counselor assess primarily which element(s)?

a. probability of harm b. physical vs. psychological nature of harm c. magnitude of harm d. both a and c are correct

19. According to Welch (2003), one of the most common types of malpractice liability in treatment services for mental health professionals is:

a. fraudulent billing b. dual relationships c. family treatment and forensic situations d. group counseling

20. Which of the following conditions is NOT a required element of informed consent?

a. capacity b. voluntariness c. comprehension d. literacy



Final Examination


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

21. ____________ law addresses conduct required by or prohibited by all individuals and is enforced by governmental legal authorities.

a. Professional b. Case c. Civil law d. Criminal

22. Client values determine the ________________ of counseling.

a. content b. level of progress c. process d. all of the above

23. Counselor values tend to determine the ____________ of counseling.

a. process b. content c. level of professionalism d. rate of progress

24. Principle ethics can be said to be based primarily upon which of the following?

a. western culture b. religion c. male-oriented worldview d. all of the above e. a and c only

25. Why has the ethics of care approach been criticized?

a. The focus is primarily societal with lack of concern for the individual. b. Application is limited to the health sciences. c. There is a lack of a coherent definition. d. all of the above




Final Examination

PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

26. The ethical decision-making model introduced by Cottone is based upon what theoretical model?

a. general psychologically based models b. post-positivism c. social constructivism d. none of the above

27. Ethical decision making models often provide a series of steps for making an ethical choice, however they may fail to describe which of the following:

a. the consequences that can occur when an ineffective course of action is taken b. how the choice in a specific course of action occurs (an exploratory frame work for the decision process itself) c. how values are weighed by the decision maker d. all of the above

28. According to the social constructivism process in ethical decision making, when consensualizing fails, then parties may engage in reflective interaction to ___________.

a. accomplish an agreement on the decision to be made b. determine whether arbitration should be undertaken c. be able to make the decision on their own d. hold firm to their original position

29. Ethical dilemmas are a(n):

a. sign of the importance of professional judgment b. failure of ethical codes c. affirmation that one is “practicing” a profession d. only a and c of the above e. all of the above

30. Hare argued that the intuitive level of everyday decision making was not sufficient and is superceded by another level of moral decision making. What is that level?

a. reflective b. critical thinking c. consultative d. fact finding



Final Examination


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

31. Cottone’s model of ethical decision making is based on:

a. purely social-relational model b. purely relational theory c. ethical principles d. psychologically-based ethical decision making

32. When colleagues engage in bullying, harassment, or emotional abuse of an individual within the workplace, this would be described as:

a. a normal difference of opinion that occasionally occurs within a workplace b. individuals who are experiencing conflict due to holding similar values c. relational issues that are normal when people work closely with one an other d. a case of mobbing within an organizational culture e. all of the above

33. Several states have acknowledged that mental injury can result from excessive stress on the job and this phenomenon has been called:

a. occupational mental injury b. overstress syndrome c. organizational mental injury d. mental health injury

34. At present there are several corporations that are establishing company policies that support an individual’s right to be employed in an environment that is free from mobbing.

a. false, it would never work b. false that is something for the future c. true, this is happening at present d. none of the above are correct

35. Professional roles within an organizational culture are constructed in response to which of the following?

a. professional practices b. institutional expectations c. personal needs d. both a and b are correct e. all of the above




Final Examination

PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

36. Pro bono publico refers to what?

a. working as a counselor for the state, or county and serving the general public b. being an expert witness at a criminal trial c. serving a client at no charge d. none of the above e. a spanish speaking counselor

37. It is standard practice to destroy case records generally _______ years after services have been terminated.

a. 10-12 b. 4-6 c. 8-10 d. none of the above

38. Regarding the ethical issues surrounding complimentary and alternative medicine, which of the following statements is true?

a. The current status quo does not include a “don’t ask/don’t tell” approach. b. Managed care typically never reimburses for CAMs. c. CAM advocates may be denying the role of traditional medicine. d. Individuals who choose CAMs as a treatment forfeit their right to autonomy.

39. Areas of major ethical concern in working with people with HIV include:

a. stigma b. informed consent c. confidentiality d. both b and c are correct

40. A rehabilitation counselor working for a managed care company is concerned about the limitations the company is placing on the treatment of the clients they are seeing. The next time this counselor sees a client, they place a more severe diagnosis in the clients chart in an attempt to obtain an increased number of counseling sessions. This behavior is unethical and is considered which of the following?

a. downcoding b. underdiagnosing c. bartering d. bono publico e. overdiagnosing



Final Examination


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

41. Passive euthanasia would best be defined as:

a. rational suicide b. intentional termination of life c. mercy killing d. none of the above

42. The study of the entire set of human genes, the assembly of the gene sequence, gene expression and the relationship between different gene sequences is called:

a. genomics b. genetics c. human genome project d. genetic decoding e. none of the above

43. A type of test administration that especially does not transfer well to computerized assessment is:

a. vocational interest testing b. aptitude testing c. personality testing d. none of the above

44. According to the text, which of the following is (are) the most likely reason(s) why counselors may not purchase adequate computer safety systems to protect client data?

a. ignorance b. presumed unlikelihood of unethical file disclosure c. amount of installation time required d. a and b only e. all of the above

45. HIPPA rules require that the counselor disclose policies related to the use and disclosure of protected health information and that this occur:

a. within 24 hours of the first treatment contact b. within 48 hours of the first treatment contact c. within a week of the first treatment contact d. none of the above




Final Examination

PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

46. The ethical codes of APA and ACA require computer assisted assessment software developers to provide empirical evidence of safety and effectiveness prior to making claims as to the effectiveness of their product. What is the situation regarding ethical standards on the provision of evidence before developers of self-help or therapeutic software market this material?

a. They must provide evidence of superior results when compared to in-vivo counseling. b. They must provide evidence of training for counselors prior to use. c. They must provide evidence of safety and effectiveness. d. No evidence of safety and effectiveness is required.

47. As defined by NBCC and others, the practice of professional counseling and information delivery that occurs when the client(s) and counselor are in separate or remote locations and utilize electronic means to communicate over the Internet is best defined as:

a. techno intervention b. web therapy c. web counseling d. unethical

48. These terms are outdated and possibly harmful concepts, but were previously used in counselor training programs several decades ago. a. minority b. race c. multiculturalism d. a and b only e. none of the above

49. The tendency to treat others relative to one’s own cultural perspective with an apparent disregard for cultural differences is called:

a. cultural bias b. cultural deficit c. multiculturalism d. none of the above

50. As a counselor you provide counseling services to individuals from different cultures than your own. You would be providing this type of counseling:

a. cultural b. client centered c. transcultural d. cross-cultural



Final Examination


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

51. As a second generation Polish American counselor in a rural mental health center that serves a primarily Hispanic population you are frequently involved in helping relationships with individuals who have a socially constructed worldview that differs from your own. You would be providing this type of counseling:

a. multicultural b. transcultural c. bi-cultural d. client centered e. none of the above

52. A professional advocacy issue related to social justice of which counselors need to be aware when examining data obtained from the U.S. Census of 2000 is the:

a. identification of single race only status b. exclusion of Asian populations as a racial category c. inclusion of three or more races category d. exclusion of Latino populations as a racial category

53. Due to the lack of clarity in professional codes of ethics related to multicultural situations, counselors may find themselves faced with engaging in:

a. responsible disobedience b. dual relationships c. illegal activity d. immoral activity e. both a and d

54. A counselor who utilizes the terms culturally disadvantaged or cultural deficit may cause harm by:

a. using terms that are stigmatizing and cause emotional damage b. placing a psychological assignment on individuals or a group that may impact their perceived ability to meet or exceed members of a dominate group c. causing the counselor to have increased and inappropriate expectations of a client d. all of the above




Final Examination

PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

55. Imperative to the field of marriage and family therapy is the idea of:

a. psychoanylitic theory b. the ‘traditional’ family c. systemic relationships d. all of the above

56. Which association has the “clinical member” category of membership?

a. APA b. IAMFC c. ACA d. AAMFC e. none of the above

57. The idea of was affirmed by the Declaration of Helsinki, after Nazi doctors at concentration camps were found to have done harmful experiments on ethnic groups.

a. informed consent b. confidentiality c. moral responsibility d. the Hippocratic Oath e. none of the above

58. Which is NOT one of the interventions that school counselors use to provide direct services in their school?

a. counseling b. collaboration with teachers c. coordination d. consultation e. none of the above

59. Arnold v. Board of Education of Escambia County (1989) was a court decision regarding what? a. a counselor having inappropriate sexual relations with a student b. a counselor giving a student advice on abortion c. a counselor withholding information about a threat which was made from a client towards another person which resulted in that person’s death d

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