develop How Children

develop How Children

Robert Siegler Judy DeLoache Nancy Eisenberg Jenny Saffran

F o u r t h E d i t i o n

This is an exciting time in the field of child development. The past decade has brought new theories, new ways of thinking, new areas of research, and innumerable new findings to the field. We originally wrote How Children Develop to describe this ever improving body of knowledge of children and their development and to convey our excitement about the progress that is being made in understanding the developmental process. We are pleased to continue this endeavor with the publication of the Fourth Edition of How Children Develop. —From the Preface

As new research expands the field’s understanding of child and adolescent development, the authors of How Chil- dren Develop continue their commitment to bringing the story of today’s developmental science to the classroom in a clear and memorable way. Joined in this Fourth Edition by Jenny Saffran of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, they maintain their signature emphasis on the “Seven Classic Themes” of development, which facilitates students’ understanding by highlighting the fundamental questions posed by investigators past and present. The new and ex- panded coverage in the Fourth Edition spans a wide range of topics—from broad areas like the epigenetic aspects of development, the links between brain function and behavior, and the pervasive influence of culture to specific subjects such as the mechanisms of infants’ learning, the effects of math anxiety, and the rapidly growing influence of social media in children’s and adolescents’ lives. This edition also features the highly anticipated debut of Launch- Pad, an online learning system that features Worth Publishers’ celebrated video collection; the full e-Book of How Children Develop; and the LearningCurve quizzing system, which offers students instant feedback on their learning.

Learn more about and request access at www.worthpublishers.com/launchpad.

Order How Children Develop, Fourth Edition, with LaunchPad at no additional cost by using ISBN 10: 1-4641-8284-1 / ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-8284-6.

Coverage of contemporary developmental science is very important to me. I prefer a text that describes the relevant research and is updated regularly. I find How Children Develop to be very good in this area, as all of the authors are primarily researchers.

—Jeffery Gagne, University of Texas at Arlington

I highly recommend this textbook. The main strengths are up-to-date research with clear descriptions of study methods and findings as well as excellent real-world examples that get students interested in a topic so that they are excited enough to read about the research and evidence that support real-world developmental phenomenon. I do not think the text has a major weakness.

—Katherine O’Doherty, Bowdoin College

Since its inception, I think that How Children Develop is the best child development textbook available. I would not hesitate to use it again in my classes.

—Richard Lanthier, George Washington University

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Cover art: Football, Bentota, Sri Lanka, 1998 (oil on canvas) ©Andrew Macara / Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library

develop H

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W O R T H

F o u r t h E d i t i o n

Siegler DeLoache Eisenberg

Saffran

 

 

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develop How Children

 

 

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develop How Children

F o u r t h E d i t i o n

Robert Siegler Carnegie Mellon University

Judy DeLoache University of Virginia

Nancy Eisenberg Arizona State University

Jenny Saffran University of Wisconsin–Madison

And Campbell Leaper, University of California–Santa Cruz, reviser of Chapter 15: Gender Development

 

 

This is dedicated to the ones we love

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about the authors: Robert Siegler is the Teresa Heinz Professor of Cognitive Psychology at Carnegie Mellon University. He is author of the cognitive development textbook Children’s Thinking and has written or edited several additional books on child development. His books have been translated into Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Spanish, French, Greek, Hebrew, and Portuguese. In the past few years, he has presented keynote addresses at the conventions of the Cognitive Development Society, the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, the Japanese Psychological Association, the Eastern Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Conference on Human Development. He also has served as Associate Editor of the journal Developmental Psychology, co-edited the cognitive development volume of the 2006 Handbook of Child Psychology, and served on the National Mathematics Advisory Panel from 2006 to 2008. Dr. Siegler received the American Psychological Association’s Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 2005, was elected to the National Academy of Education in 2010, and was named Director of the Siegler Center for Innovative Learning at Beijing Normal University in 2012.

Judy DeLoache is the William R. Kenan Jr. Professor of Psychology at the University of Virginia. She has published extensively on aspects of cognitive development in infants and young children. Dr. DeLoache has served as President of the Developmental Division of the American Psychological Association, as President of the Cognitive Development Society, and as a member of the executive board of the International Society for the Study of Infancy. She has presented major invited addresses at professional meetings, including the Association for Psychological Science and the Society for Research in Child Development. Dr. DeLoache is the holder of a Scientific MERIT Award from the National Institutes of Health, and her research is also funded by the National Science Foundation. She has been a visiting fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Palo Alto, California, and at the Rockefeller Foundation Study Center in Bellagio, Italy. She is a Fellow of the National Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 2013, she received the Distinguished Research Contributions Award from the Society for Research in Child Development and the William James Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research from the Association for Psychological Science.

Nancy Eisenberg is Regents’ Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. Her research interests include social, emotional, and moral development, as well as so- cialization influences, especially in the areas of self-regulation and adjustment. She has published numerous empirical studies, as well as books and chapters on these topics. She has also been editor of Psychological Bulletin and the Handbook of Child Psychology and was the founding editor of the Society for Research in Child Development journal Child Development Perspectives. Dr. Eisenberg has been a recipient of Research Scientist Development Awards and a Research Scientist Award from the National Institutes of Health (NICHD and NIMH). She has served as President of the Western Psychological Association and of Division 7 of the American Psychological Association and is president- elect of the Association for Psychological Science. She is the 2007 recipient of the Ernest R. Hilgard Award for a Career Contribution to General Psychology, Division 1, American Psychological Association; the 2008 recipient of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award; the 2009 re- cipient of the G. Stanley Hall Award for Distinguished Contribution to Developmental Psychology, Division 7, American Psychological Association; and the 2011 William James

 

 

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Fellow Award for Career Contributions in the Basic Science of Psychology from the Association for Psychological Science.

Jenny R. Saffran is the College of Letters & Science Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and an investigator at the Waisman Center. Her research is focused on learning in infancy and early childhood, with a particular focus on language. Dr. Saffran currently holds a MERIT award from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. She has been the recipient of numerous awards for her scientific research, including the Boyd McCandless Award from the American Psychological Association for early career contributions to developmental psychology, and the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers from the National Science Foundation.

 

 

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Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx

1 An Introduction to Child Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Period . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3 Biology and Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

4 Theories of Cognitive Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

5 Seeing, Thinking, and Doing in Infancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

6 Development of Language and Symbol Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

7 Conceptual Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

8 Intelligence and Academic Achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

9 Theories of Social Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

10 Emotional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

11 Attachment to Others and Development of Self . . . . . . . . . . 425

12 The Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

13 Peer Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

14 Moral Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

15 Gender Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593

16 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-1

Name Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NI-1

Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SI-1

brief contents:

 

 

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Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Child Development . . . . . . 1

Reasons to Learn About Child Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Raising Children 3 Choosing Social Policies 4 Understanding Human Nature 6 Review 7

Historical Foundations of the Study of Child Development . . . . . . . . 7 Early Philosophers’ Views of Children’s Development 8 Social Reform Movements 9 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution 9 The Beginnings of Research-Based Theories of Child Development 10 Review 10

Enduring Themes in Child Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1 . Nature and Nurture: How Do Nature and Nurture Together Shape

Development? 10 2 . The Active Child: How Do Children Shape Their Own

Development? 12 3 . Continuity/Discontinuity: In What Ways Is Development Continuous,

and in What Ways Is It Discontinuous? 13 4 . Mechanisms of Development: How Does Change Occur? 16 5 . The Sociocultural Context: How Does the Sociocultural Context

Influence Development? 17 6 . Individual Differences: How Do Children Become So Different

from One Another? 20 7 . Research and Children’s Welfare: How Can Research Promote

Children’s Well-Being? 21 Review 22

Methods for Studying Child Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 The Scientific Method 23 Contexts for Gathering Data About Children 25 Correlation and Causation 28 Designs for Examining Development 32 Ethical Issues in Child-Development Research 35 Review 36

contents:

 

 

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Chapter 2 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Prenatal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Box 2.1: A Closer look Beng Beginnings 41

Conception 42 Box 2.2: Individual differences The First—and Last—Sex Differences 44

Developmental Processes 45 Box 2.3: A Closer look Phylogenetic Continuity 46

Early Development 47 An Illustrated Summary of Prenatal Development 48 Fetal Behavior 51 Fetal Experience 52 Fetal Learning 54 Hazards to Prenatal Development 56

Box 2.4: Applications Face Up to Wake Up 61

Review 66

The Birth Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Diversity of Childbirth Practices 68 Review 69

The Newborn Infant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 State of Arousal 70 Negative Outcomes at Birth 74

Box 2.5: Applications Parenting a Low-Birth-Weight Baby 78

Review 81

Chapter 3 Biology and Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Nature and Nurture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Genetic and Environmental Forces 88

Box 3.1: Applications Genetic Transmission of Disorders 94

Behavior Genetics 99 Box 3.2: Individual differences Identical Twins Reared Apart 101

Review 105

Brain Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Structures of the Brain 106 Developmental Processes 109

Box 3.3: A Closer look Mapping the Mind 110

The Importance of Experience 114 Brain Damage and Recovery 117 Review 118

The Body: Physical Growth and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Growth and Maturation 119

 

 

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Nutritional Behavior 121 Review 126

Chapter 4 Theories of Cognitive Development . . . . . . . 129

Piaget’s Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 View of Children’s Nature 132 Central Developmental Issues 133 The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to Age 2 Years) 135 The Preoperational Stage (Ages 2 to 7) 138 The Concrete Operational Stage (Ages 7 to 12) 141 The Formal Operational Stage (Age 12 and Beyond) 141 Piaget’s Legacy 142

Box 4.1: Applications Educational Applications of Piaget’s Theory 143

Review 144

Information-Processing Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 View of Children’s Nature 146 Central Developmental Issues 147

Box 4.2: Applications Educational Applications of Information-Processing Theories 154

Review 155

Sociocultural Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 View of Children’s Nature 156 Central Developmental Issues 158 Review 160

Box 4.3: Applications Educational Applications of Sociocultural Theories 161

Dynamic-Systems Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 View of Children’s Nature 163 Central Development Issues 165

Box 4.4: Applications Educational Applications of Dynamic-Systems Theories 166

Review 167

Chapter 5 Seeing, Thinking, and Doing in Infancy . . . . . 171

Perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Vision 173

Box 5.1: A Closer look Infants’ Face Perception 176

Box 5.2: A Closer look Picture Perception 183

Auditory Perception 182 Taste and Smell 186 Touch 186 Intermodal Perception 186 Review 188

 

 

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Motor Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Reflexes 189 Motor Milestones 190 Current Views of Motor Development 191

Box 5.3: A Closer look “The Case of the Disappearing Reflex” 192

The Expanding World of the Infant 192 Box 5.4: Applications A Recent Secular Change in Motor Development 195

Box 5.5: A Closer look “Gangway—I’m Coming Down” 196

Review 198

Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Habituation 199 Perceptual Learning 199 Statistical Learning 200 Classical Conditioning 201 Instrumental Conditioning 201 Observational Learning/Imitation 202 Rational Learning 204 Review 205

Cognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Object Knowledge 206 Physical Knowledge 207 Social Knowledge 208 Looking Ahead 211 Review 211

Chapter 6 Development of Language and Symbol Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Language Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 The Components of Language 217 What Is Required for Language? 218

Box 6.1: Applications Two Languages Are Better Than One 222

The Process of Language Acquisition 224 Box 6.2: Individual differences The Role of Family and School Context in Early Language Development 235

Box 6.3: Applications: iBabies: Technology and Language Learning 240

Theoretical Issues in Language Development 246 Box 6.4: A Closer look: “I Just Can’t Talk Without My Hands” What Gestures Tell Us About Language 248

Box 6.5: Individual differences Developmental Language Disorders 251

Review 252

Nonlinguistic Symbols and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Using Symbols as Information 253 Drawing 254 Review 256

 

 

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Chapter 7 Conceptual Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

Understanding Who or What . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Dividing Objects into Categories 261 Knowledge of Other People and Oneself 266

Box 7.1: Individual differences Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) 270

Box 7.2: Individual differences Imaginary Companions 273

Knowledge of Living Things 273 Review 278

Understanding Why, Where, When, and How Many . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Causality 279

Box 7.3: A Closer look Magical Thinking and Fantasy 282

Space 283 Time 286 Number 288 Relations Among Understanding of Space, Time, and Number 292 Review 293

Chapter 8 Intelligence and Academic Achievement . . . 297

What Is Intelligence? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Intelligence as a Single Trait 299 Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities 299 Intelligence as Numerous Processes 300 A Proposed Resolution 300 Review 301

Measuring Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 The Contents of Intelligence Tests 302 The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) 304 Continuity of IQ Scores 305

Box 8.1: Individual differences Gifted Children 306

Review 306

IQ Scores as Predictors of Important Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Review 308

Genes, Environment, and the Development of Intelligence . . . . . . . 308 Qualities of the Child 309 Influence of the Immediate Environment 310 Influence of Society 313

Box 8.2: Applications: A Highly Successful Early Intervention: The Carolina Abecedarian Project 318

Review 320

Alternative Perspectives on Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Review 322

 

 

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Acquisition of Academic Skills: Reading, Writing, and Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

Reading 322 Box 8.3: Individual differences Dyslexia 326

Writing 328 Mathematics 330 Mathematics Anxiety 334

Box 8.4: Applications Mathematics Disabilities 335

Review 335

Chapter 9 Theories of Social Development . . . . . . . . . 339

Psychoanalytic Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 View of Children’s Nature 342 Central Developmental Issues 342 Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development 342 Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development 345 Current Perspectives 347 Review 348

Learning Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 View of Children’s Nature 349 Central Developmental Issues 349 Watson’s Behaviorism 349 Skinner’s Operant Conditioning 350 Social Learning Theory 352

Box 9.1: A Closer look Bandura and Bobo 352

Current Perspectives 355 Review 356

Theories of Social Cognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 View of Children’s Nature 356 Central Developmental Issues 356 Selman’s Stage Theory of Role Taking 357 Dodge’s Information-Processing Theory of Social Problem Solving 357 Dweck’s Theory of Self-Attributions and Achievement Motivation 359 Current Perspectives 361 Review 361

Ecological Theories of Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 View of Children’s Nature 362 Central Developmental Issues 362 Ethological and Evolutionary Theories 362 The Bioecological Model 366

Box 9.2: Individual differences Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 370

Box 9.3: Applications Preventing Child Abuse 373

Current Perspectives 378 Review 379

 

 

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Chapter 10 Emotional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

The Development of Emotions in Childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Theories on the Nature and Emergence of Emotion 386 The Emergence of Emotion in the Early Years and Childhood 387

Box 10.1: Individual differences Gender Differences in Adolescent Depression 396

Review 398

Regulation of Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 The Development of Emotional Regulation 399 The Relation of Emotional Self-Regulation to Social Competence and Adjustment 401 Review 402

Individual Differences in Emotion and Its Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . 402 Temperament 403

Box 10.2: A Closer look Measurement of Temperament 406

Review 410

Children’s Emotional Development in the Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 Quality of the Child’s Relationships with Parents 410 Parental Socialization of Children’s Emotional Responding 411 Review 414

Culture and Children’s Emotional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Review 416

Children’s Understanding of Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Identifying the Emotions of Others 416 Understanding the Causes and Dynamics of Emotion 418 Children’s Understanding of Real and False Emotions 419 Review 421

Chapter 11 Attachment to Others and Development of Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

The Caregiver–Child Attachment Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Attachment Theory 428 Measurement of Attachment Security in Infancy 430

Box 11.1: Individual differences Parental Attachment Status 432

Cultural Variations in Attachment 434 Factors Associated with the Security of Children’s Attachment 435

Box 11.2: Applications Interventions and Attachment 436

Does Security of Attachment Have Long-Term Effects? 437 Review 439

Conceptions of the Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 The Development of Conceptions of Self 440

 

 

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Identity in Adolescence 446 Review 449

Ethnic Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Ethnic Identity in Childhood 450 Ethnic Identity in Adolescence 451 Review 453

Sexual Identity or Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 The Origins of Youths’ Sexual Identity 453 Sexual Identity in Sexual-Minority Youth 454 Review 458

Self-Esteem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 Sources of Self-Esteem 459 Self-Esteem in Minority Children 462 Culture and Self-Esteem 463 Review 464

Chapter 12 The Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

Family Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Box 12.1: A Closer look Parent–Child Relationships in Adolescence 471

Review 472

The Role of Parental Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Parenting Styles and Practices 472 The Child as an Influence on Parenting 477 Socioeconomic Influences on Parenting 479

Box 12.2: A Closer look Homelessness 481

Review 482

Mothers, Fathers, and Siblings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 Differences in Mothers’ and Fathers’ Interactions with Their Children 482 Sibling Relationships 483 Review 485

Changes in Families in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 Box 12.3: Individual differences Adolescents as Parents 486

Older Parents 488 Divorce 489 Stepparenting 494 Lesbian and Gay Parents 496 Review 497

Maternal Employment and Child Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 The Effects of Maternal Employment 498 The Effects of Child Care 500 Review 506

 

 

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Chapter 13 Peer Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

What Is Special About Peer Relationships? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512

Friendships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 Early Peer Interactions and Friendships 513 Developmental Changes in Friendship 515 The Functions of Friendships 517 Effects of Friendships on Psychological Functioning and Behavior over Time 520

Box 13.1: Individual differences Culture and Children’s Peer Experience 522

Children’s Choice of Friends 523 Review 525

Peers in Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 The Nature of Young Children’s Groups 525 Cliques and Social Networks in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence 526 Cliques and Social Networks in Adolescence 526 Negative Influences of Cliques and Social Networks 528

Box 13.2: A Closer look Cyberspace and Children’s Peer Experience 529

Romantic Relationships with Peers 531 Review 532

Status in the Peer Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 Measurement of Peer Status 533 Characteristics Associated with Sociometric Status 533

Box 13.3: Applications Fostering Children’s Peer Acceptance 538

Stability of Sociometric Status 539 Cross-Cultural Similarities and Differences in Factors Related to Peer Status 539 Peer Status as a Predictor of Risk 540 Review 543

The Role of Parents in Children’s Peer Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . 544 Relations Between Attachment and Competence with Peers 544 Quality of Ongoing Parent–Child Interactions and Peer Relationships 545 Parental Beliefs 546 Gatekeeping and Coaching 546 Family Stress and Children’s Social Competence 548 Review 548

Chapter 14 Moral Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

Moral Judgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Piaget’s Theory of Moral Judgment 555 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Judgment 558

 

 

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Prosocial Moral Judgment 562 Domains of Social Judgment 563 Review 566

The Early Development of Conscience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Factors Affecting the Development of Conscience 567 Review 568

Prosocial Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 The Development of Prosocial Behavior 569 The Origins of Individual Differences in Prosocial Behavior 571

Box 14.1: A Closer look Cultural Contributions to Children’s Prosocial and Antisocial Tendencies 573

Box 14.2: Applications School-Based Interventions for Promoting Prosocial Behavior 576

Review 577

Antisocial Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 The Development of Aggression and Other Antisocial Behaviors 577 Consistency of Aggressive and Antisocial Behavior 579

Box 14.3: A Closer look Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder 580

Characteristics of Aggressive-Antisocial Children and Adolescents 581 The Origins of Aggression 582 Biology and Socialization: Their Joint Influence on Children’s Antisocial Behavior 587

Box 14.4: Applications The Fast Track Intervention 588

Review 589

Chapter 15 Gender Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593

Theoretical Approaches to Gender Development . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Biological Influences 596

Box 15.1: A Closer look: Gender Identity: More than Socialization? 598

Cognitive and Motivational Influences 599 Box 15.2: A Closer look Gender Typing at Home 604

Box 15.3: Applications Where Are SpongeSally SquarePants and Curious Jane? 605

Cultural Influences 606 Review 607

Milestones in Gender Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 Infancy and Toddlerhood 608 Preschool Years 608 Middle Childhood 610 Adolescence 612

Box 15.4: A Closer look Gender Flexibility and Asymmetry 613

Review 614

 

 

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Comparing Girls and Boys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614 Physical Growth: Prenatal Development Through Adolescence 617 Cognitive Abilities and Academic Achievement 619 Personality Traits 625 Interpersonal Goals and Communication 626

Box 15.5: A Closer look Gender and Children’s Communication Styles 627

Aggressive Behavior 628 Box 15.6: Applications Sexual Harassment and Dating Violence 631

Review 633

Chapter 16 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637

Theme 1: Nature and Nurture: All Interactions, All the Time . . . . . . . 638 Nature and Nurture Begin Interacting Before Birth 638 Infants’ Nature Elicits Nurture 639 Timing Matters 639 Nature Does Not Reveal Itself All at Once 640 Everything Influences Everything 641

Theme 2: Children Play Active Roles in Their Own Development . . . . 641 Self-Initiated Activity 642 Active Interpretation of Experience 643 Self-Regulation 643 Eliciting Reactions from Other People 644

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