Developmental

Review – A -Monday 7pm

Sample Questions

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11 – Developmental

 

 

_____ is the notion that the quantitative properties do NOT change (are invariant) despite changes in the objects appearance.

Animistic thought

Assimilation

Egocentrism

Conservation

 

Motor development during infancy tends to follow two main guidelines: the _____ rule, whereby motor skills develop from the head to the feet, and the _____ rule, whereby babies learn to control body parts closest to their trunk before moving to the periphery (e.g., hands and feet).

cephalocaudal; bipedal

cephalocaudal; proximodistal

proximodistal; cephalocaudal

bipedal; proximodistal

 

Darryl thinks that playing peek-a-boo is hilarious! He does not know where his mom goes during the game, but it excites him when he sees her face again. Darryl is most likely in Piaget’s ________ stage of development.

Preoperational

Concrete Operational

Formal Operational

Sensorimotor

 

Eddie’s neighbor Marjorie steals a laptop computer from another student in their dorm and makes Eddie promise not to tell on her. After campus police come to the dorm and question him, Eddie decides to tell them that Marjorie stole the laptop, because Eddie knows that Marjorie broke the law. According to Kohlberg, Eddie is exhibiting ________ moral reasoning.

preconventional

conventional

postconventional

unconventional

 

Chapter 5 – Consciousness

Self-recognition in a mirror is limited to:

humans over three years old, cats and gorillas.

Humans, dogs, and apes.

A few animals and children over 18 months old.

Humans over three years old.

 

All the following are four basic properties of consciousness EXCEPT:

intentionality: directed towards an object

division: inability to integrate information from all body senses

transience: the tendency to change

selectivity: the capacity to include some objects and not others

 

Freud described _____as a mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts or memories from consciousness.

Thought suppression

speech errors (slips)

the dynamic unconscious

repression

 

Being fully awake is to quiet resting/relaxed as:

beta wave activity is to delta wave activity.

beta wave activity is to alpha wave activity.

sleep spindles are too rapid eye movements.

beta wave activity is to beta wave activity.

 

New smokers often progress from their first cigarette to smoking half of a full pack a day and just weeks illustrating:

withdrawal.

a placebo effect.

drug tolerance.

drug dependence.

Chapter 7 -Learning

Pavlov’s dogs were conditioned to salivate to a 1,000-hz tone due to its pairing with food. After this training, it was found that the dogs would salivate to a 900-hz tone but not to a 500-hz tone. Salivating to the 900-hz tone is an example of _____, and not salivating to a 500-hz tone is an example of _____.

a conditioned response; generalization

discrimination; extinction

generalization; discrimination

a conditioned response; negative punishment

Jess always feels hungry at 7:00 PM. Maggie decides to play a particular song for Jess at 6:59 PM for several nights in a row. One night, Maggie plays the song at 5:30 PM and Jess says, “Huh . . . I suddenly feel hungry.” In this situation, classical conditioning occurred because

Maggie presents dinner before playing the song for Jess.

the song naturally causes Jess’s stomach to growl.

Maggie paired a neutral stimulus, a song, with an unconditioned stimulus, a certain time of day, when Jess always felt hungry.

Maggie plays the song when Jess first arrives home and then waits an hour to serve dinner.

 

Taylor’s parents are very inconsistent with their child-rearing practices. Some days, Taylor can get away with climbing onto the back of the couch and jumping off, but other days she is punished. Taylor’s parents are reinforcing her behavior on a ________ schedule.

fixed ratio

variable interval

variable ratio

fixed interval

 

Rayvonte, a recent college graduate, is impressed when his cousin puts his résumé on the university’s job board and then receives many job interviews. Rayvonte decides to post his résumé in hopes of finding his first professional job. He most likely posted his résumé on the job board as a result of

latent learning.

observational learning.

vicarious conditioning.

positive reinforcement.

 

Twins Malcolm and Molly are learning to ride a bike. Molly watches Malcolm’s attempts for several minutes and then tries to ride her own bike. During this process, Molly’s mirror neurons are

never active.

active when she is watching Malcolm.

active when she tries to ride her bike.

active when she watches Malcolm and when she rides her own bike.

 

Chapter 6-Memory

When you are reading your textbook, your brain changes the words you are reading into a meaningful neural code that it can use. In memory, this process is called:

encoding.

storage.

retrieval.

attention.

 

Professor Smith refuses to learn his students’ names because he believes the names will take up space in his memory that he needs to store research-related information. Professor Smith’s belief about his memory is INCORRECT because

research-related information is stored in semantic memory.

the students’ names are maintained in short-term storage.

long-term storage holds unlimited amounts of information.

working memory allows him to continually maintain both sets of information.

 

Nora and Miles are studying for an exam. Nora makes flash cards to memorize new terms and repeatedly reads them to herself. Miles links new terms to the ones he already knows based on their meanings. Nora is using ________ and Miles is using ________ to learn the terms.

maintenance rehearsal; elaborative rehearsal

elaborative rehearsal; maintenance rehearsal

procedural memory; semantic memory

semantic memory; procedural memory

 

Addie told Callum her top 10 favorite movies. When he tries to recall the list later on, he can only remember the last two movies Addie mentioned. The fact that Callum only remembers the last two movies is most likely due to

the recency effect.

procedural memory.

the primacy effect.

implicit memory.

 

If you can remember exactly what you did yesterday but have trouble remembering the names of all 50 states, then you have excellent ________ memory but may have poor ________ memory.

episodic; semantic

procedural; explicit

semantic; episodic

explicit; procedural

 

Whenever Mandy gets angry with her boyfriend, she easily remembers all of the other times she has been angry with him in the past. Mandy’s ability to retrieve this information is most likely influenced by

suggestibility.

state-dependent memory.

persistence.

context-dependent memory.

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