4. We implement continous improvement of quality, time and costs. 3. Professionalism 1. We have…

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4. We implement continous improvement of quality, time and costs.
3. Professionalism
1. We have professional management, feedback and develop our strengths.
2. We use chances and scope for decision making.
3. Wir have clear tasks, competences and responsibilities (TCR).
4. We minimize thinking in departments and practice cross departmental
cooperation.
4. Trust
1. We ensure clear decisions and observe agreements.
2. We can trust each other and have appreciative interaction internally, with
customers and partners.
3. We talk openly about unpleasant topics and we find solutions.
4. We take responsiblity, set a good example and are authentic.
5. Meaning
1. We all know the purpose of our business and this causes meaning.
2. We are proud of what we have reached together.
3. We think and behave positively and really develop ourselves.
4. We are different than the others and this is key to performance and meaning.
© Roman Stöger
Purpose of normative management: effective
company, effective employees, effective managers
company:
mission and
strategy
employees:
values and rules
for collaboration
managers:
management
approach and
management
principles
5. STRATEGIC CHANGE-MANAGEMENT
© Roman Stöger
Change management in the past and now…
42
change in the past change now
long time for changes and
ways to react to them
always shorter windows of
opportunity for decisions and
implementation
isolated adaptions of
business units, departments,
processes…
overall changes of the whole
business model
only a small number of
persons to develop change
initiatives
Increasing urgency to integrate
a lot of decision-makers,
experts and result-driven people
© Roman Stöger
43
time
market volume
introduction growth maturity decline
„Old World“ „New World“
Strategy is about the proper switch from
old world to new world
© Roman Stöger

44
growing importance of people development
and customer orientation

world

growing competition: digital banking,
scenario of low interest, dept and material
assets

«banking not banks» through digitalization,
more individual services to key accounts

national / international competition of
banks and «banking companies without being
banks»

«The customers do all the banking
transactions.»

big pressure on margins, need for increasing
productivity

redimension of product- and service
portfolio, concentration of multi-channel
adequate products

strengthening responsibility, self
organization and self-control

old world new

constant business model over
decades, i.e. no changes

classic-analog thinking of banks as
institutions (customers and employees)

regional competition for customers, stable
competitive situation

«The bank does all banking
transactions for industry, retail…»

high profitability within classic banking
products and services

many products and services (a lot of
them with risky position over decades)

patriarchal top-down-culture in all
banks

image of the conservative banking
officer

Transformation map:
Tool and Example (retail bank)
© Roman Stöger
Definition of change-management
45
Change management is effective development,
controlling and implementation of change-processes in
complex, social systems.
© Roman Stöger
Success factors for change-management
46
1. Communication of meaning of change (customer value,
performance…)
2. Expression of necessity of change
3. Result orientation and implementation approach in all steps
4. Real noticeability of change-programs
5. Coalition for implentation of the new
6. Methodologic competence in all steps of the program
7. Use of change-management-controlling
8. Development of a culture of trust during and after the program
9. Role model of management
© Roman Stöger
Mistakes in change-management
47
1. Really different opinions in the management team
2. No clearness and postponing of decisions
3. «Everybody can take decisions» – wrong approach of participation of
employees and managers
4. No or too less focus on implementation – no «motivation through
results»
5. Neither positive nor negative sanctions for behaviour
6. Producing an attitude of consumers for change and communication
7. Pure internal perspective and neglection of business
8. Establishing and pushing of micro-politics, rumours, intrigues…
9. For all topics: bad communication
© Roman Stöger
Change-management: three dimensions
48
objectives
and
content
processes
and
methods
behaviour
and
emotions
© Roman Stöger
Dimensions of change-management:
1. Objectives and content
49
Objectives and content
1. Clear message in mission and strategy
2. Early committment of main changes in business units
and functions
3. Proper statements concerning adaptions in
organization (hierarchy and processes)
4. Open communication of consequences for employees
and managers
5. Audit of corporate culture and development of
necessary impulses for culture
© Roman Stöger
Dimensions of change-management:
2. Processes and methods
50
Processes and methods
1. Logic and transparent change-process with clear
responsibilities
2. Common understanding for processes and methods
3. Early personnel decisions for projects, initiatives…
4. Ensuring feedback and result-orientation in the whole
process
5. Professional use of change-tools: transformation map,
communication matrix, stakeholder management…
© Roman Stöger
Dimensions of change-management:
3. Behaviour and emotions
51
Behaviour and emotions
1. To set an example of change through management
2. Consequent functional-mixed teams in all projects and keyinitiatives
3. Sensorium to staff: feedback media, coaching of
implementation…
4. Common management development: principles, tasks and
instruments of competent management
5. Change-trainings for change-teams
© Roman Stöger
Psychology in change management: change curve
52
1. shock
2. rejection
3. insight
4. integration
time
perceived competence
© Roman Stöger
53
step 1. shock 2. rejection 3. insight 4. integration
description /
behaviour
• challence to
habits
• leaving the „Old
World“
• refusing of the
„New World“
• arguments for the
right approach of
the „Old World“
• acceptance of the
„New World“
• leaving old habits
and searching new
ones
• implementation of
the „New World“
• acceptance of new
behaviour
core topic communicating
and explaining
active listening,
being consequent
and convincing
activate and being
a role model
developing and
living the „New
World“
intervention
• information about
the „New World“
• personal contact
• „holding the line“
• active participation
• giving time
• separation of
factual and
relationship level
• showing
perspectives and
devloping plans
• „living change“
• giving feedback
• showing results
• acknowledge
• support to live the
„New World“
Psychology in change management: change curve
© Roman Stöger
Change-process: architecture („ICIS“)
54
initiation conception implementation stabilization
© Roman Stöger
55
1. clear assignment for change
2. communication of meaning
and urgency of change
3. forming a coalition for change
4. establishing a changeprocess
5. clear TAR (tasks, competences,
responsibilities) for the process
1. development of a strategy
for the change topic
2. design of impulse in the
fields of process and
behaviour
3. early key decisions
4. making affected people
involved
5. integration of feedbackmedia
initiation conception
Change-process: architecture („ICIS“)
© Roman Stöger
56
1. consequent implementation
plan
2. test before the big roll-out
3. ensuring transformation from
„Old World“ to „New World“
4. check of the change-process
and the change-strategy
5. managing and communication of
first results („quick wins“)
1. transfering of the new into
daily business
2. noticeability of results,
documentation of the
success story
3. hedge of the new
4. avoiding of „fall-back“ in
old routine and in the “Old
Word“ in general
5. open review of results and
process
implementation stabilization
Change-process: architecture („ICIS“)
© Roman Stöger
Psychology in change-management:
types of behaviour
57
active partner for
change
1. active input for change: new ideas, new solutions, new measures…
2. consequent support of change with «blood, sweat and tears»
3. responsiblity, engagement, competence and «strong
implementation power»
4. high commitment with the objectives of change
«limited» partner
for change
1. good contribution to the new – but only after being asked
2. only 90% commitment
3. being consequent in realizing jobs
4. having trust in the change team
passive observer
1. as much contribution as critics
2. no responsibility and no engagement
3. official statements for “the new world” but staying in “the old
world”
4. consumer for information, communication, campaigns…
active resistance
fighter
1. no commitment for the new
2. resistance-behaviour everywhere and everytime
3. communication against the new
4. organization of resistance forces
6. COOPERATIONS AND M&A
© Roman Stöger
Definition of the subject
59
combinations
cooperations of groups
/ stakeholders
industrial associations,
trusts…
• cooperation on a voluntary basis
• no change in the legal status
(„independence“)
• cooperation with a defined or a possible end
acquisition merger
asset deal share deal
merger
through
integration
merger as
a new
company
• possibly not on a voluntary basis
• loss of legal independence
• longterm combination
cooperations M&A (mergers and acquisitions)
business / corporate
cooperations
temporary joint venture,
franchise-systems,
industrial / agricultural
cooperative…
© Roman Stöger
Drivers for cooperation and M&A
60
maturity / decline phase,
price-wars, over-capacities
financial reasons
power of suppliers and
buyers
growing intensity
of competition in all
businesses
shorter time and higher
speed for R&D, entry,
marketing…
technolog. development /
IT / „e“
political and social
development (law,
demography…)
economic development
(growth, inflation-rate,
„geography“…)
drivers for
cooperation
and M&A
© Roman Stöger
Positive impacts of professional management of
cooperations and M&A`s…
61
1. a clear plan for the board and therefore an instrument of management and
communication
2. a mission, strategy and measures for implementation of cooperation and
M&A
3. reaching the strategic objectives: market position, innovation performance,
productivities, attractiveness for good people, cash, profitability
4. substantiation of «synergies», «potentials», «chances»…
5. adaption of the organization and management processes to cooperation
and M&A (clear tasks, competences, responsiblities)
6. realizing «common language» and «common understanding» for the topic
7. motivation effect through «invetion of our new and common firm» via
cooperation and M&A
8. positive impact on corporate culture – «our company», «our project»…
9. giving perspective to performers to «stay on board»
10. consequently a new spirit, speed and implementation-power through
professional management of cooperation and M&A
© Roman Stöger
Management of cooperation and M&A via the
Integrated management system (IMS)
62
Source: Malik, F., Strategie, Frankfurt 2011, p. 80 with adaptions.
organizational level people level
7. development
of employees
1. mission and strategy and managers
6. operative
controlling 5. results
2. organization
3. management
processes
4. managerial
effectiveness
shortterm (< 1="" year)="">
IMS as framework for cooperation and M&A
© Roman Stöger
Cooperation and M&A: St. Gallen Management Model
63
strategy
structure culture
management
© Roman Stöger
Core topics for cooperation and M&A:
Strategy and structure
64
strategy
1. a mission for cooperation and M&A as orientation for
strategy, structure, culture and management
2. common view of management concerning the challenges
(«old world – new world»)
3. a solid strategy for cooperation and M&A as a basis for
business units, functions, regions…
4. deduced strategies for business units, functions, regions…
5. adaption of the most important management processes
(mgmt. by objectives, budgeting, innovation…)
structure
1. adaption of structures to the objectives of cooperation and
M&A
2. implementation program for relevant functions and
processes – deduced from strategy
3. productivity program for realization «synergies» through
functions and processes
4. clear definition of tasks, competences and responsibilities in
processes including interfaces and systems
5. defined management committees for cooperation and M&A
(e.g. steering committees..)
© Roman Stöger
65
culture
1. development of common values for cooperation and M&A,
respect and «positive acceptance of the past of the partners»
2. implementation of management principles for cooperation
and M&A
3. development of «common language and common
understanding»
4. professional monitoring of management principles and
values
5. concept and implementation of proper communication for
cooperation and M&A
management
1. early decisions for managers and management organization
2. clear assignments for the managers for the next period
3. solid and simple process for implementation and reporting
of results
4. deduced development program for managers and
employees to ensure cooperation and M&A
5. clear policies for HR: remuneration, local resp. organizatorial
changes, HR-processes, career-systems…
Core topics for cooperation and M&A:
Culture and management
© Roman Stöger
Control of the process: 1. „Pre-Merger“
66
1. preparation
1. management statement in the board for the purpose and benefits
of cooperation and M&A
2. clearness of motivation and the „strategic gap“ to be filled via
the project
3. documentation of expectations and critical conditions for exit
or success
4. early plan for communication and milestones in the project
2. evaluation
1. (re)search for possible candidates
2. definition of the intensity of the „combination“ (light cooperation
vs. merger)
3. evaluation of possible partners to fulfill the purpose and to fill
the „gap“
4. clearness of strengths and weaknesses of possible partners –
including the own company (strategy, structure, culture,
management)
3. negotiation and
decision
1. negotiations on the basis of the evaluation
2. early identification of „dealbreakers“
3. decision on the basis of checks, evaluation, negotiation…
4. solid definition of the treaty: governance, strategy, organization,
management (decisions), reporting
© Roman Stöger
67
1. preparation
1. professional plan for realization: steps, milestones, management,
project team…
2. early personal decisions (employees, management) – especially to
give a perspective to performers
3. exchange and „mixture“ of managers and employees in project
groups, common development
4. professional change-management during the whole process:
communication to stakeholders, information, monitoring of the
atmosphere…
2. development of
the integration
1. development of a mission for cooperation and M&A
2. development of a strategy for the company(ies) and the functions
– including risk-management
3. ensuring the proper organization for integration: management
committee, clear tasks / competences / responsibilities, processes,
integration of systems…
4. cultural integration: values, behaviour, management principles…
3. controlling the
implementation
1. realization of working management processes: management by
objectives, planning, budgeting…
2. consequent project management and controlling of
implementation
3. ensuring the new, common culture, esp. „being proud of the result“
4. review of the project, the process and the results
Control of the process: 2. „Post-Merger“
7. DIGITALIZATION AND STRATEGY
© Roman Stöger
Digitalization confronts our traditional view of
businesses…
69
„Old World“ „New World“
Branches are defined via products
in ownership.
Branches are defined via use and customer
value, not necessarily via ownership.
Selling is the final step of
development, production and
marketing.
Selling is the beginning of a temporarily not
limited customer relationship over the whole life
cycle of products.
„Organisations“ are separated
functions in a hierarchy, e.g. R&D,
purchase, production, sales…
„Organisations“ are common processes and
functionalities like pace, implementation-power,
interface, connection.
Management is primarily about
management of employees.
Management is multi-dimensional and means
management of colleagues in other functions, of
customers, of development partners…
Quelle: Stöger, R., Toolbox Digitalisierung, Stuttgart 2017.
© Roman Stöger
How do business models change via digitalisiation
(„Old world“ – „New world“)?
70
… not only traffic signs, but complete traffic management
systems
… not the retail shop, but quick delivery from suppliers to the
customer
… not printed paper, but customer-specific software for
workflows (accounting…)
Quelle: Stöger, R., Toolbox Digitalisierung, Stuttgart 2017.
… not a cooking machine, but „connected cooking“ as solution
for productivity problems im big kitchens
… not bank credits, but search for investors and organizing
investing possibilities („crowdlending“)
© Roman Stöger
71
Quelle: Stöger, R., Toolbox Digitalisierung, Stuttgart 2017.
… not airplane engines, but zero-defect use („power by
the hour“)
… not a truck, but optimized solutions in the logistic
balance-sheet
… not agriculture machines, but systems for optimized
output for farms and forestry
… not a tennis racket, but a trainer for improving playing
performance
How do business models change via digitalisiation
(„Old world“ – „New world“)?
© Roman Stöger
72
How do entrepreneurs and managers judge
digitalization?
„Digitalization is one of our key strategic issues in
future.“
„In our management board we have a common
understanding of digitalization.“
„Business model and organization will change
through digitalization.“
„We surely know how to adapt structures and
processes to digitalization.“
„Personnel- and management development play
a key role for digital transformation.“
„Measures and initiatives for digitalization are
running well concerning timeline and effectiveness.“
91%
47%
63%
34%
81%
28%
Statements…
Quelle: Stöger, R., Toolbox Digitalisierung, Stuttgart 2017.
© Roman Stöger
Success factors and practical problems
show a clear pattern.
Insight: Management really knows
success factors for digitalization…
Reality: Management is facing the following
problems…
… digitalization as top-managementagenda
… delegation in „organizational
silos“
… communication of a clear message
for digitalization
… at the end a topic only for
specialists (IT…) and too less
connection with the market
… consequent integration within the
strategy (company, functions,
regions…)
… „parallel worlds“ to other
programs and too less connection
to other topics
… „systematic garbage disposal“ to
get ressources for the new world
… dissipating in too many
initiatives
… creation of a „coalition for
digitaliziation“ of the best employees
and managers
… assigning the „wrong“ (new,
unexperienced, overloaded…)
… consequent adatpion of processes,
interfaces and responsibilities
… implementation of the new,
digital world with the
organization of the old world
81%
91%
97%
69%
81%
88%
59%
56%
72%
97%
44%
81%
Quelle: Stöger, R., Toolbox Digitalisierung, Stuttgart 2017.
© Roman Stöger
Core topics for digital development
74
Quelle: Stöger, R., Toolbox Digitalisierung, Stuttgart 2017.
1 willingness to change having a scenario of „new world“: markets, customers, competition, products, change from the „old world“ to the
services, (information) technologies…
2 customer value clear view of What is the customer paying us for? customer value in the „new world“, esp.:
3 renewal further development and innovation services of our products and
4 productivity creation of lean, fast, flexible processes
5 new technologies using the advantages of connection…) (information-) technologies (data,
6 competences new approaches for development for the „new world“ personnel- and management
7 „systematic garbage disposal“ consequent processes… to get resources for digitalization stop of overcome activities, businesses,
8 strategy for digitalization consolidation of all topics as objectives and key initiati digital implementation program ves – a
© Roman Stöger
Digitalization will definitely NOT change
the rules of business…
75
1. solid market position
2. convincing customer value
3. market oriented innovation performance
4. permanent improvement of productivity
5. high attractiveness for good employees and managers
6. solid liquidity, financial stability and self financing
7. enough profitability for investing in future
8. a well established culture of performance and trust
9. competent management as basis for results
Quelle: Stöger, R., Toolbox Digitalisierung, Stuttgart 2017.
8. LITERATURE
© Roman Stöger
Literature
77
Ansoff, I., Corporate strategy, New York.
Beer, S., Diagnosing the system for organizations, Chichester.
Chandler, A., Strategy and structure, Cambridge.
Drucker, P., Management – Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, Oxford.
Drucker, P., Sinnvoll wirtschaften, Düsseldorf.
Fogg, C., Implementing your strategic plan, New York.
Gälweiler, A., Strategische Unternehmensführung, Frankfurt.
Hammer, M. / Champy, J., Business Reengineering, Frankfurt.
Harvard Business School, On Strategy, HBR`s 10 Must Reads, Boston.
Hinterhuber, H., Strategische Unternehmensführung, Berlin.
Hoffmeister, C., Digital Business Modelling, München.
Kaplan, R. / Norton, D., The Execution Premium, Harvard.
Kotler, P., Grundlagen des Marketing, München.
Kotter, J., Leading Change, Boston.
Malik, F., Führen Leisten Leben, Frankfurt.
Malik, F., Navigieren in Zeiten des Umbruchs, Frankfurt.
Malik, F., Strategie, Frankfurt.
Malik, F., Unternehmenspolitik, Frankfurt.
Mintzberg, H., Strategy Safari, Frankfurt.
Müller-Stewens, G. / Lechner, C., Strategisches Management, Stuttgart.
Parnell, J., Strategic Management, London.
Porter, M., Competitive advantage, New York.
Porter, M., Wettbewerb und Strategie, München.
Stöger, R., Die Toolbox für Manager, Stuttgart.
Stöger, R., Die wirksamsten Management-Werkzeuge, Stuttgart.
Stöger, R., Innovationsmanagement für die Praxis, Stuttgart.
Stöger, R., Produktivitätssteigerung und Ergebnisverbesserung, Stuttgart.
Stöger, R., Prozessmanagement, Stuttgart.
Stöger, R., Strategieentwicklung für die Praxis, Stuttgart.
Stöger, R., Toolbox Digitalisierung, Stuttgart.
Ulrich, H., Gesammelte Schriften, Bände 1 bis 5, Bern.

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