please choose one of the essay options below and answer it in full, using an introduction with a thesis statement and a clear conclusion.

1) War has been a constant theme throughout the course and much of the history of Western Society. How has warfare changed from the ancient and medieval era to the modern era? How has the concept of “total war” shaped warfare and society as a whole in the twentieth century? How has the conduct of war shaped modern nation-states?

2) Soon after the discovery of the New World, European countries began settling in the Americas and extending their influence worldwide. What were some of the most important political and social reasons for the settlement of the New World? How was colonization different from later imperialist policies that led to the domination of India, Africa, the Middle East, and a variety of other places? What was the ideology behind the new imperialism after European nations shifted away from colonization?

3) Liberalism (classically defined), Socialism, Communism, and Fascism played vital roles as ideological systems in shaping the modern world. What are some of the most important features of these ideologies? How are the similar, and how are they different to, political systems that came before them? What impact, in particular, did they have on the 20th century?

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