Homework Question

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Please respond to the Forum questions listed below. You are expected to give complete answers referring to what you have read in the “Lessons”(reading & resources). Reference to, or the use of critical thinking, analysis, what you have learned in previous courses, the media, and in your professional lives is also expected. Define the subject; make references to what you have read, what you have learned elsewhere, and then form a response.

Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 350 words. Please respond to a least 2 other students. Response should be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions. When addressing the topic questions, you are to state the question followed by your response. Do this for each question posed.

1) What is smuggling? What is smuggled and why is it smuggled? Who benefits from smuggling and who is hurt by smuggling and how? Besides smuggling, what other border violations threaten the facilitation of legitimate trade?

2. What is the globalization of organized crime and how serious is the threat?

Article for this weeks posting:

Gallagher, A. T. (2015). Exploitation in migration: Unacceptable but inevitable. Journal of International Affairs, 68(2), 55-XIV.

Mamazizi, S., & Rostami, Y. (2016). On the examination of reasons why border dwellers tend to goods smuggling and its impacts on the non-accomplishment of economic development. World Scientific News, 52, 93-105.

Mullins, S., & Wither, J. K. (2016). Terrorism and organized crime 1. Connections : The Quarterly Journal, 15(3), 65-82.

Novakoff, R. (2015). Transnational organized crime: An insidious threat to U.S. national security interests. Prism : A Journal of the Center for Complex Operations, 5(4), 134-149.

Ortiz, L. V. (2016). Cross-border mobility and clandestine practices: Scenarios of violence in the Mexico-United States border 1. Human Organization, 75(3), 269-278.

President Trump’s Executive Order. (2017). Presidential executive order on enforcing federal law with respect to transnational criminal organizations and preventing international trafficking.

Roberts, B., Hanson, G., Cornwell, D., & Borger, S. (2010). An analysis of migrant smuggling costs along the southwest border. Office of Immigration Statistics, Department of Homeland Security, Tech. Rep.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2016). Transnational organized crime: The globalized illegal economy.

Supplemental Readings:

The White House. (2011). Strategy to combat transnational organized crime: Addressing converging threats to national security. Washington, D.C.

Note this requirement – respond to at least two of your classmate’s posts.

Student# 1Marco

1) What is smuggling? What is smuggled and why is it smuggled? Who benefits from smuggling and who is hurt by smuggling and how? Besides smuggling, what other border violations threaten the facilitation of legitimate trade?

Smuggling is a dual-purpose action that demands movement based on necessity. As per Solayman Mamazizi and Yaghob Rostami, there is good smuggling that reduces taxes and duty receipts, but the negative type everyone is used to hearing about is “fraud which includes transference of goods without paying custom duties and paying business interests” (Mamazizi, S., & Rostami, Y., 2016, p. 95). The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the primary law enforcement agency that investigates smuggling into the United States from international locations such as Mexico, Canada, Central America, the Caribbean, and the rest of the world (ICE, 2018). ICE combats “illegal firearms, ammunition and explosives smuggling activities that fuel violence both domestically and abroad” (ICE, 2018). Humans, stolen materials, and illegal drugs such as narcotics and pharmaceuticals are also smuggled based on necessity.

Smuggling occurs due to a demand in supply for items that are illegal or restricted. Two common methods of smuggling occur via covert operations across borders and concealed goods hidden within cargo, cars, trains, and people. The United States has long and partially unregulated borders that allows for smuggling to occur. Items are smuggled for many reasons that include public demand, advertisement, limitations, prohibitions, cheaper prices, lucrative income for smugglers, and many other motivations (Mamazizi, S., & Rostami, Y., 2016, p. 96). Smugglers benefit financially from delivering products demanded on the black market. On the other hand, the country that receives these smuggled goods and personnel are negatively impacted via loss of employment, income, trade, forfeitures, and a rise in expenses to combat illegal smuggling (Mamazizi, S., & Rostami, Y., 2016, p. 94).

Besides smuggling, other border violations that threaten the facilitation of legitimate trade are bribery and the profit made from illegal goods. Smugglers can offer to pay large amount of money to officials who are willing to look the other way instead of performing their official functions. Law enforcement and administrators that receive pay offs can single handedly destroy any efforts to dismantle illegal criminal activities at American borders. The sale of illegal goods avoids taxes and other regulatory factors that could jeopardize the safety of the items. Unfortunately, where ever there is a need, there will always be smuggling. The United States needs to continue to strengthen operations and policies that reduce smuggling at the border, as well as other criminal activities that impact free trade and the economy.

2. What is the globalization of organized crime and how serious is the threat?

Due to “open borders, globalization, and technology that allows individuals to communicate, and to move funds, goods, and people around the world more easily,” organized crime is no longer restrained to one location or country (Novakoff, R., 2015, p. 136). As a result of their growing resources and power, organized crime organizations are able to expand beyond borders and are a direct threat to the United States National Security. Transnational Organized Crime threatens “public safety, public health, democratic institutions, and economic stability across the globe” (National Security Council, n.d.). These criminal organizations utilize successful smuggling and other illegal operations to expand. As a direct result of their lucrative returns, they are able to support terrorist organizations and utilize cybercrimes to deliver their attacks (National Security Council, n.d.). In 2017, President Donald Trump signed an executive order that aims to strengthen federal law against transnational criminal organizations, in an attempt to restore safety for the American people by limiting their illegal conduct, violence, and control (White House, 2017).

Marco Mejia

ICE (2018). Firearms, Ammunition, and Explosives Smuggling Investigations. Retrieved from https://www.ice.gov/firearms-explosives-smuggling

Mamazizi, S., & Rostami, Y. (2016). On the examination of reasons why border dwellers tend to goods smuggling and its impacts on the non-accomplishment of economic development. World Scientific News, 52 , 93-105. Retrieved from http://www.worldscientificnews.com/wp-content/uplo…

National Security Council (n.d.). Transnational Organized Crime: A Growing Threat to National and International Security. Retrieved from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/administratio…

Novakoff, R. (2015). Transnational organized crime: An insidious threat to U.S. national security interests. Prism : A Journal of the Center for Complex Operations, 5(4), 134-149. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/docv…

White House (2017). Presidential Executive Order on Enforcing Federal Law with Respect to Transnational Criminal Organizations and Preventing International Trafficking. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docv…

Student#2 Lindsey

Hello class,

Before I go on with this week’s lesson, I would like to at first wish everyone a Merry Christmas and Happy Holidays. I hope everyone gets to enjoy the holidays this years whether you are with your family or not. Now, on to this week’s discussion. This week’s lesson had us look at smuggling and the effects on the United States and the law enforcement communities. We also looked at the globalization of organized and transnational crime and how much of a threat it truly is.

1) What is smuggling? What is smuggled and why is it smuggled? Who benefits from smuggling and who is hurt by smuggling and how? Besides smuggling, what other border violations threaten the facilitation of legitimate trade?

In our lesson, smuggling was defined as the “hidden entry and exit of goods through official and unofficial sources without paying state duties.” Anything can be smuggled. Drugs, weapons, people, and any other product that is on the market. When goods are smuggled, they tend to be available at a discounted price because they do not have to pay dues and items can be marketed at costs. The economy, law enforcement agencies, and even the people receiving the goods are effected in a negative way because of smuggling. The only ones that benefit are criminal organizations. They are able to profit money and build a strong empire by selling goods without the costs of taxes and other dues. Legal markets lose out on their profits due to the lower priced competition, so that drops the profit margins and market value. Law enforcement agencies have to dedicate more resources to stopping these organizations smuggling in their goods and putting illegal drugs and weapons on the streets. The everyday person also are put at risk because of illegal items being out their on the streets along with prescriptions being sold without FDA regulations. The risk of that alone could be the difference between life and death. Bribes are another violation at the border. Border patrol agents do not make a lot of money, and if the right opportunity comes up to the right person, criminal organizations can easily have an agent in their pocket that can help them ease things that happen at border crossings.

2. What is the globalization of organized crime and how serious is the threat?

The globalization of organized crime is basically criminal organizations expanding across the entire globe. It is a serious threat to countries all over the world because terrorist groups are joining criminal organizations and they are building a strong and deadly empire. With terrorist groups joining criminal organizations, they are bringing in more money and more resources that could make them even deadlier.

Mamazizi, S., & Rostami, Y. (2016). On the examination of reasons why border dwellers tend to goods smuggling and its impacts on the non-accomplishment of economic development.World Scientific News, 52 , 93-105.

Novakoff, R. (2015). Transnational organized crime: An insidious threat to U.S. national security interests. Prism: A Journal of the Center for Complex Operations. 5 (4), 134-149.

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