I need an assignment of 1500 words with a title discussing all the core arguments.

We can write your essays! Let our essay writing experts help you get that A in your next essay. Place your order today, and you will enjoy it. No plagiarism.


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

I need an assignment of 1500 words with a title discussing all the core arguments.

I need an assignment of 1500 words with a title discussing all the core arguments.
1 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 SHALL WAGNERISM HAVE NO DOMINION? 1 Eric Tucker Professor, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada [email protected] ABSTRACT The Wagner Act Model has formed the basis of Canada ’s collective bargaining regime since World War II but has come u nder intense scrutiny in recent years because of legislative weakening of co llective bargaining rights, constitutional litigation defending collective barg aining rights and declining union density. This article examines and assesses t hese developments, arguing that legislatively we have not witnessed a wholesal e attack on Wagnerism, but rather a selective weakening of some of its element s. In the courts, it briefly appeared as if the judiciary might constitutionaliz e meaningful labour rights and impede the erosion of Wagnerism, but recent judicia l case law suggests the prospects for this outcome are fading. While the po litical defence of Wagnerism may be necessary when the alternatives to it are li kely worse, holding on to what we’ve got will not reverse the long-term decline in union density. The article concludes that at present there are no legal soluti ons to the labour movement’s problems and that innovative efforts to represent w orkers’ collective interests outside of formal collective bargaining provide a m ore promising alternative. he theme of Wagnerism has been attracting increasin g attention in Canada for several reasons. Perhaps the greatest st imulus for the debate recently is the controversy over the constit utionalization of labour rights and whether some elements of the Wagn er Act model, particularly majoritarian exclusivity 2 should be established as a minimum requirement for a collective bargaining law to pass constitutional mu ster. But that is not the only reason for interest in considering the fate of Wagn erism. There are two additional developments that are driving this conce rn. The first is the legislative erosion of statutory collective bargaining schemes— the primary reason for seeking their constitutionalization—which has been taking place in fits and starts over the past forty years. However, it is important to make clear that these are T Tucker 2 not attacks on Wagnerism tout court but rather on particular elements of the model, the ones that support collective bargaining, rather than the ones that fragment and limit it. 3 The second development is not a legal one, but a p olitical- economic one. There has been a shift from an accumu lation regime informed by weak Keynesianism, in which the dominant production model was the large integrated firm that made long-term commitments to their employees and in which the dominant gender contract had married wome n working in the home, to a Neoliberal one, in which production increasing ly occurs through networks, in which employers make few commitments to workers and in which women’s labour force participation approaches that of men. This change has transformed the landscape in which labour and employment laws o perate, producing regulatory mismatches that undermine the labour law ’s effectiveness even in the absence of retrenchment by the state. Higher levels of employer hostility to trade unions and collective bargaining, and labour market and industrial restructuring in which fewer workers have full-time, full-year jo bs, permanent jobs, and in which they are more likely to be employed in small workplaces or in globally competitive industries combine to produce condition s antithetical to the functioning of Wagnerism. If true, then even if Wag nerism was to survive as a legal regime, its domain in the ‘Dominion’ is likel y to continue to shrink to nominal levels in the for-profit, capitalist sector of the economy. The purpose of this article is to assess the state of the Wagner Act model (WAM) in Canada and to argue that that while its de fence, whether through political action or constitutional litigation, may be a necessary objective given that under present conditions the alternatives to i t are likely to be worse, it is not an adequate strategy for reversing the decline of c ollective bargaining, particularly in the private sector. I begin with an overview of trends in labour legislation and then focus specifically on Saskatch ewan’s controversial Bill 85, enacted in May, 2013 and on the Harper government’s recent federal sector labour laws. I argue that although Canada has not w itnessed an assault on statutory collective bargaining rights, there has b een a marked erosion of them. In the next part I review attempts to constitutiona lize collective labour rights and argue that the prospects for their protection—not j ust measured in terms of preserving WAM, but of setting a baseline that woul d protect meaningful collective bargaining—is dimming. In the third sect ion I turn to the central argument that Wagnerism’s survival would, in any ev ent, leave it with a shrinking dominion. Finally, I conclude with a few thoughts on the limits of law and what else might be done. Before proceeding, however, it will be helpful to c larify what Wagnerism is and the relation between Wagnerism and collective l abour rights more broadly. Most obviously, Wagnerism is simply a specific mode l of collective labour rights and like all models of labour rights it addresses t hree key issues: 1) trade union formation; 2) bargaining structure; and 3) dispute resolution. However, the ways 3 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 in which Wagnerism addresses these key issues are n ot all distinctly Wagnerian. Some of its elements are common to most collective bargaining regimes and are recognized as such by the International Labour Orga nization (ILO) and other international institutions. Therefore, we need to b e careful to distinguish between Wagnerian and non-Wagnerian elements of Can adian collective bargaining law, even though an erosion of any eleme nt may result in WAM becoming ineffective. In the list below, I have made a preliminary attemp t to identify the basic elements of the Canadian collective bargaining mode l, indicating which are distinctly Wagnerian (W) and which are more univers al (U). In making this list, I appreciate that lines cannot always be drawn sharpl y and that, for example, the Wagnerian context within which a more universal ele ment is located, may give it a particular form and content. Thus, in the recent Saskatchewan Court of Appeal judgment in R. v. Saskatchewan Federation of Labour , 4 the court explained its reluctance to recognize the right to strike as a fr ee-standing dimension of freedom of association because the specific form th at was being claimed was Wagnerian and the court was not prepared to constit utionalize a particular statutory model of labour rights. Nevertheless, I b elieve it is still useful to categorize these elements because it is possible to argue, for example, that some elements, like the freedom to strike, are more univ ersally recognized than others, like majoritarian exclusivity. 1. Trade Union Formation: a. Legal protection against state and employer interfe rence with union organizing (U) b. Majoritarian exclusivity (W) c. State determination of appropriate certification un its (W) 2. Bargaining Structure: a. State determination of appropriate bargaining units , which for the most part track certification units (W) b. Highly decentralized bargaining (essential enterpri se bargaining as the norm) (W) 3. Dispute Resolution: a. Terms and conditions of employment are determined b y collective bargaining between the parties (U) b. A legal duty to bargain in good faith is imposed on the parties (W) c. Bargaining impasses are resolved by strikes and loc k-outs, with the result largely determined by the relative bargaining power of the parties (U) Tucker 4 d. Strikes and lockouts are prohibited while a collect ive agreement is in force and until negotiations have r eached an impasse and conciliation has been completed (W) e. Disputes over the interpretation and application of collective agreements are to be resolved by binding arbitratio n (W) Additionally, the effectiveness of WAM crucially de pends on the existence of labour boards with the power to enforce its strictu res and provide meaningful remedies when violations occurred. The erosion of t his administrative apparatus would also significantly harm the model (Arthurs 20 06; Slinn 2008), but this is not a matter addressed here. It is important to keep all of these dimensions in mind because, as we shall see, legislative erosion is partial; some elements of WAM, particularly fragmented bargaining structures in the private sec tor, remain untouched or are expanded, while other, more universal elements, suc h as the freedom to strike, are being restricted. I. LEGISLATIVE EROSION OF LABOUR RIGHTS While Americans sometimes may think that if they le t their gaze follow the North Star to Canada they will find a more progress ive version of Wagnerism, the fact of the matter is that the shine has been f ading for many years, in both the private and the public sectors, as the result of th e legislative erosion of labour rights. While it is true that compared to American ossification (Estlund 2002), Canadian labour law has been frequently amended, th e trend in the more recent past has been towards the weakening, not strengthen ing of labour rights, and it is arguable that the pace of erosion may accelerate , depending the electoral fortunes of right-wing parties. Not surprisingly, t here is a sense of foreboding about Wagnerism’s future among many Canadian academ ics. 5 The Canadian Foundation of Labour Rights (CFLR) mai ntains a database of labour laws restricting collective bargaining and t rade union rights dating back to 1982, the year the Charter came into force. On a visit in early February, 201 4, 207 laws were listed. The database does not disting uish between legislation targeting public and private sector unions, but it is well known that the public sector has been the primary target of what has aptl y been characterized as ‘permanent exceptionalism,’ (Panitch and Swartz 200 3) consisting of back-to- work statutes ending lawful strikes, imposed wage r estraint, restrictions on the scope of bargaining, and the expansion of essential service worker designations. These are restrictions on Wagnerism’s commitment to negotiated contracts determined by the bargaining power of the parties, and even though this principle was only partially embraced for the publi c sector in the best of times, its erosion in recent years is undisputed. Moreover, as we shall see, the principal 5 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 alternative, binding interest arbitration by a neut ral third-party, is also being degraded. Opposed to this view is a recent review of labour a nd employment law changes by Kevin Banks who has come to different co nclusion (Banks 2013). His study is much broader in its focus, looking at mini mum standards as well as collective bargaining legislation, but specifically in regard to the latter, Banks finds that “it cannot be said that there has been a ny trend across Canada over the past decade [2001-11] toward weaker protection of p rivate sector rights to organize and bargain collectively” (ibid). In part, the difference between the CFLR study and Banks’ is his exclusive focus on the private sector. But even leaving that difference aside, because Banks’ study only begins in 2001, it misses the single most important change to private sector Canadian collective bargaining law, the shift away from card count cert ifications toward mandatory elections. Prior to 1977 all Canadian jurisdictions provided for card count certifications. Currently, the only ones that retai n card counts are the federal jurisdiction, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland , Prince Edward Island and Quebec. While the number of jurisdictions retai ning card counts might seem high, it is important to note that these laws only cover about one-third of the labour force, 6 leaving about two-thirds under a mandatory voting regime. Most of these changes occurred before 2001, when Banks’ study begins. The impact of this change has been the subject of a number of studies and while their findings differ on the extent of the im pact, they are unanimous in its direction. The shift to mandatory elections has red uced the likelihood of certification success and negatively affected the u nionization rate. The effect of the change is buffered to an extent by the tight ti melines the legislation typically imposes between the filing of a certification appli cation and the holding of an election, but a negative effect still remains (Warn er 2012; Johnson 2004; Riddell 2004; Slinn 2004). Another matter that Banks overlooked is that in the toing and froing of labour law that occurs when governments change, the restoration of labour rights previously stripped away is not always compl ete. So while it is true, as Banks says, that in 2005 the Liberal government in Ontario restored to labour boards the power to order remedial certifications w here employer unfair labour practices prevent workers from freely expressing th eir wishes in a certification election and to order interim reinstatement of empl oyees allegedly discharged for trade union activity, these measures only parti ally reversed the changes made by the previous Conservative government in 1995. Fo r example, card count certifications were only restored in the constructi on sector. In short, labour rights in Ontario are weaker after 2005 than they were in 1990, before the NDP reforms of 1993. 7 Still, I think Banks’ article provides an important corrective to those who might overstate the extent of legislative erosion a nd who fail to acknowledge that Tucker 6 some labour law reforms have either restored rights that were stripped away in earlier rounds of legislation or introduced new pro tections. For example, over the same period when card count certifications were bei ng abolished, first contract arbitration (FCA) was being introduced. Although on its face, first contract arbitration might seem to be a departure from Wagne rism insofar as it provides for third-party imposition of terms and conditions when negotiations fail, the evidence shows that first contract arbitration laws increase the percentage of newly certified unions achieving first agreements b y negotiation . Thus, FCA legislation should be viewed as remedying a weaknes s of Wagnerism—its reliance on bargaining in a context where employers are particularly resistant to unions and where unions lack the bargaining resourc es to induce employers to agree to minimally acceptable terms (Slinn and Hurd 2011). To get a better sense of these trends, it is useful to look briefly at Saskatchewan’s Bill 85, passed in May, 2013 and a s eries of federal labour statutes passed between 2011 and 2013. SASKATCHEWAN , BILL 85 There was much trepidation when the Saskatchewan pr ovincial government issued a consultation paper on the “renewal” of lab our legislation in May, 2012 (Saskatchewan Ministry of Labour Relations and Work place Safety). Nothing good could be expected from the ideologically conse rvative Saskatchewan Party that was elected in 2007, replacing an NDP governme nt that had been in power for the previous 16 years, especially in light of i ts first foray into labour law reform. Shortly after its election, the government enacted Bill 5, which severely restricted the right of public sector workers to st rike by the expansion of essential service designations and Bill 6, which eliminated c ard count certifications and expanded employer voice in union certification camp aigns. 8 The questions raised in the paper suggested the government was intereste d in widening exclusions from the Act, increasing trade-union ‘accountabilit y’, facilitating decertification, restricting picketing, limiting access to first con tract arbitration, and, most ominously, perhaps moving towards a right-to-work r egime by expanding the freedom of workers to opt out of the union and of d ues payment. When Bill 85 was introduced in December, 2012, it turned out tha t the government was not going after collective bargaining law as aggressive ly as many had feared. Right- to-work type laws were not present; nor were restri ctions on picketing. But the bill was not benign either. It proposed to: 1. Broaden the confidential employee exclusion and pre clude supervisors from being in the same bargaining unit as those they supervise 7 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 2. Increase government involvement in dispute resoluti on and require a 14-day cooling-off period and 48-hour notice to the employer before a strike can occur 3. Provide for last-offer votes at the behest of emplo yers, governments or employees 4. Provide for voluntary recognition 5. Increase decertification opportunities 6. Require consideration of economic conditions in fir st contract arbitration 7. Require unions to provide audited financial stateme nts to members 9 Trade unions and the NDP decried the proposed law a nd the rush to enact it (Stevens 2013). Although they did not prevent the l aw from being enacted, 10 the government agreed to some last minute amendments th at lessened its impact, but did not change its fundamental thrust. One goal of the law is to protect managerial control from being compromised by trade union membership. This was accomplished through its treatment of confident ial and supervisory employees. Most jurisdictions exclude workers emplo yed in a confidential capacity in matters related to labour relations. Th e new Saskatchewan law is broader. It excludes workers whose primary duties i nclude business strategic planning, policy advice and budget implementation a nd planning when that might impact on the bargaining unit (6-1(1)(h)(i)(B )). The new law also creates a new category of worker, supervisory employees, who are broadly defined to include people who independently assign and monitor work, schedule hours and provide comments used for work appraisals or me rit increases and recommend discipline (6-1(1)(o)). Subject to certai n exceptions, the bill prohibits supervisory employees being included in the same ba rgaining unit with the people they supervise (6-11(3)). This provision is in addition to the managerial exclusion, which does not allow managerial employee s to bargain collectively. While the managerial exclusion is standard in Canad ian Wagnerism, special treatment of an additional layer of supervisory emp loyees, who presumably do not fall into the managerial exclusion, is not. The exclusion of these supervisory employees from all employee bargaining units will n ot only further fragment an already highly fragmented bargaining model, but in many cases will effectively prevent them participating in the collective bargai ning regime at all. This is because in all but the largest workplaces, the numb er of supervisory workers is likely to be too small to support viable a viable b argaining unit. Moreover, the statutory exclusion of supervisory employees from l arger bargaining units overrides the preference of supervisory and non-sup ervisory workers to bargain together, where such a preference exists. The Saskatchewan government’s treatment of worker v oice in bargaining unit determination however is not uniform. Employee voice is given weight Tucker 8 when it can lead to more fragmentation. Thus, in re gard to provisions around raiding, the Act provides that a union can apply to represent a portion of an existing bargaining unit, provided that the smaller bargaining unit is found to be appropriate and the majority of those in that small er unit wish to be represented by the raiding union (6-10, 6-12). There is no equi valent that respects worker voice when it favours combining bargaining units po st-certification, even where the combined unit would be an appropriate one. As w ell, worker voice is strengthened where it favours decertification (6-17 ). Unlike legislation in other provinces, which link open periods to the expiry of collective bargaining agreements, Bill 85 allows decertification applicat ions to be brought any time after the first two years, providing only that ther e must be a 12-month waiting period after a failed application. The changes to collective bargaining law made by Bi ll 85 are surprisingly tame given the tone of the Consultation Paper. Howe ver, the direction of the changes is clear: the government is not interested in promoting trade union formation or collective bargaining, but rather in m aking sure it does not compromise business interests, particularly in rega rd to managerial autonomy and authority. FEDERAL LABOUR LAW — HARPER STYLE The current Conservative federal government, which has jurisdiction over labour relations in the federal public sector and t he federally regulated private sector (about 10 percent of the Canadian labour fo rce), has not modified Part I of the Canada Labour Code regarding federal private se ctor collective bargaining, but it has intervened in several high-profile strik es (or threatened strikes) and is in the process of enacting legislation to impose bu rdensome reporting requirements on trade unions, reflecting its intole rance of labour disruptions in those few areas where workers retain an effective c apacity to strike and its ideological dislike of trade unions. The first intervention, Bill C-6, passed in June 20 11, ended a nationwide lockout of postal workers that followed a series of one-day rotating strikes. 11 The government announced its intent to introduce back-t o-work legislation the day after the lockout was announced, suggesting that th e employer, Canada Post, and the government, had coordinated their actions. The law provided final offer selection (FOS) as the alternative dispute resoluti on mechanism; however, it did not simply leave it for an arbitrator to decide bet ween two offers. First, the legislation imposed a wage settlement that was lowe r than the employer’s final offer at the bargaining table and, second, it estab lished guiding principles for the arbitrator to follow that included 9 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 […] the need for terms and conditions of employme nt that are consistent with those in comparable postal industries and that will provide the necessary degree of flexibility to ensure the short – and long-term economic viability and competitiveness of the Canad a Post Corporation, maintain the health and safety of its workers and e nsure the sustainability of its pension plan […] 12 The government’s intolerance of strikes was evidenc ed by the fact that they ended the job actions notwithstanding that there wa s little disruption to the postal service prior to the lockout and a protocol to maintain essential services was in place. For these reasons, the ILO upheld the union’s complaint that the government’s action violated Convention 87 respecti ng freedom of association (International Labour Organization 2013). The second intervention was in response to a threat ened strike by Air Canada’s flight attendants in October, 2011. Air Ca nada, it is to be noted, is a private carrier, not a state carrier. Here, the gov ernment did not enact back-to- work legislation (there had been no strike and Parl iament was not in session) but rather the Minister of Labour, Lisa Raitt, referred the dispute to the labour board, which had the effect of suspending the right to str ike. The legal basis for the action was dubious. One referral was made under s. 87.4 of the Canada Labour Code, which allows the Minister to send a dispute t o the labour board where it poses “an immediate and serious danger to the safet y or health of the public,” 13 a standard that could not possibly be met in this sce nario. The second referral was made pursuant to s. 107, an obscure and little used provision that gives the Minister an open-ended power to do anything she dee ms necessary to maintain or secure industrial peace. In statements to the pr ess, the Minister implied that she would intervene whenever a strike threatened to be economically disruptive —in other words, whenever a strike would be effecti ve (Employment and Social Development Canada 2011). Air Canada and the flight attendants agreed to refe r their outstanding disagreements for third party arbitration, but that was not the end of Air Canada’s labour problems. It was also having troubl e reaching an agreement with its pilots and mechanics. In March, 2012, to p revent a labour disruption, the Minster referred both disputes to the labour board pursuant to s. 87.4, but this was simply a pretext to give her time to introduce back-to-work legislation, which she did shortly thereafter (Employment and So cial Development Canada 2012). Unlike Bill 6, Bill C-33 14 did not set any terms and conditions, but it did follow the precedent of using FOS and establishing guidelines for the arbitrator to follow: […] the need for terms and conditions of employme nt that are consistent with those in other airlines and that will provide the necessary degree of Tucker 10 flexibility to ensure ( a) the short- and long-term economic viability and competitiveness of the employer; and ( b) the sustainability of the employer’s pension plan, taking into account any sh ort-term funding pressures on the employer. 15 The last piece of back-to-work legislation was enac ted in May, 2012, in response to a strike of Canadian Pacific Railway (C PR) engineers, yard-workers and conductors. In this case, the government showed unusual tolerance, allowing the strike to continue for nearly a week b efore legislating an end to it. 16 In this case, the government provided for the appoi ntment of interest arbitrators, without establishing guiding principles to be follo wed. Given the frequency of federal interference with le gal strikes, one might think Canada was facing a strike wave, but the reverse is true. Nationally, the number of hours lost due to strikes has declined sharply f rom 10.62 hours per employee in 1976 to 1.01 in 2011. In the federal jurisdictio n, there were 10 strikes in 2011, admittedly an increase from 2010 in which there wer e 7, but hardly a crisis. Not content to restrict the freedom to strike on an ad hoc basis, the Harper government has also decided to take more control ov er the collective bargaining process more generally. It has done this in two sep arate laws, both passed in 2013. The first deals with collective bargaining be tween Crown corporations and their employees. 17 Bill 60, passed in June 2013, contains an amendmen t to the Financial Administration Act that authorizes Cabine t to order a Crown corporation to have its bargaining mandate approved by Treasury Board, in which case any collective agreement it negotiates m uch also receive Treasury Board approval. It can also order that the Treasury Board have someone at the bargaining table. When questioned about the measure , Prime Minister Harper’s Parliamentary Secretary, Pierre Poilievre explained : “I am not here to take marching orders from union bosses… It is for thos e taxpayers that we work. Not union bosses” (Curry 2013). In fact, arguably this is not legislation aimed at irresponsible ‘union bosses’ but rather targets the ‘irresponsible’ managers that the government appoints to run its Crown corporatio ns. The second legislative change was to the Public Sec tor Labour Relations Act, included in a massive budget implementation bill pa ssed in December 2013. 18 The law makes many changes that are likely to very significantly undermine federal public sector collective bargaining. Briefl y, the act expands the power of government to unilaterally determine what an essent ial service is and to designate which positions in the bargaining unit pe rform essential services. Second, the law takes away from unions the ability to elect between strikes and arbitration as the final dispute resolution mechani sm. Now, arbitration is only available where the employer agrees or where 80 pe rcent or more of the positions in the bargaining unit are declared essen tial. As a result, the employer can designate 79 percent of the positions as essen tial, with the result that the 11 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 union cannot effectively strike in order to back it s bargaining demands. Finally, if disputes do go to arbitration, the law now requires the arbitrator to give preponderance to certain factors, including “Canada ’s fiscal circumstances relative to its stated budgetary policies” (s. 148( 1)(b). In short, arbitrators are no longer independent but rather are bound to give eff ect to government policies in their awards. 19 Finally, there is Bill C-377, a private member’s bi ll that passed the House of Commons but was amended by the Senate, leaving it, at the time of writing, in a state of limbo until further action is taken. The C ommon’s version of the bill amends the Income Tax Act to require unions to prov ide detailed financial statements, including itemized expenditures over $5 ,000, which would be made publicly available. While the Act purports to be ab out transparency and accountability to members, the fact of the matter i s that labour relations statutes in most provinces already require unions to provide audited financial statements to their members on request. So, rather than being a vehicle for promoting democracy in trade union affairs, the bill is bette r understood as ideological in its positioning of unions as unaccountable institutions that need to be subject to a disciplinary regime that would be condemned as unne cessary, intrusive and expensive government red tape if similar obligation s were imposed on private corporations. These concerns, as well as the questi on of the bill’s constitutionality, gained considerable traction, ev en among Conservative senators, which led to the unusual step of the Sena te adopting amendments that would loosen the reporting requirements. In terms of Wagnerism, Bill C-377 represents a shif t in its terms. Wagnerism historically treated unions as private associations whose internal governance was largely left for its officers and members. However, because unions were given an institutional role in the model, the law could not be completely indifferent to how they operated and so from the beginning there w ere provisions to make unions behave responsibly toward their members and the public. Unions were given legal status for the purpose of the collectiv e bargaining statutes so that they could be sanctioned as institutions for breach ing those statutes and the orders of labour boards and arbitrators. They were given a duty to fairly represent all members of the bargaining unit and we re prohibited from taking certain actions against bargaining unit members in particular circumstances. And, as mentioned, they had to be financially accou ntable to their members. So Bill C-377 does not introduce a new element into Wa gnerism, but rather strengthens its disciplinary control over trade uni on operations. In sum, governments in Canada have not been engaged in a project of dismantling Wagnerism, but rather of reconstructing it by selectively strengthening some elements and weakening others, w ith the predominant intent of weakening the labour movement and undermi ning union bargaining strength. While these changes do not account for th e entirety of the decline in Tucker 12 union density and weakening bargaining power, they have contributed to these outcomes and accelerated the trend toward Wagnerism ’s shrinking dominion in the Dominion. Moreover, in the near future, it is m ore likely that there will be further erosion of collective labour rights than st rengthening of them. In Ontario, Tim Hudak, the leader of the provincial Conservativ e Party, had promised to introduce right-to-work laws if elected (although h e recently pulled back from this position) and at the federal level of governme nt on June 5, 2013, a member of the Conservative caucus, Mr. Calkins, introduced a private member’s bill into the House of Commons, that would abolish card count cer tifications and replace them with a mandatory voting scheme that would requ ire a union to win a majority of the members of the bargaining unit, not just of those who cast votes, to become certified and to remain certified if a de certification application is brought. 20 II. CONSTITUTIONALIZING LABOUR RIGHTS—A QUIXOTIC QU EST TO PROTECT LABOUR RIGHTS? Labour unions have resisted the erosion of Wagneris m politically and, as we noted, have been partially successful, sometimes so ftening legislation, as in Saskatchewan, and other times getting some provisio ns repealed when more labour friendly parties take office, as in Ontario. However, those partial successes have not been adequate to prevent Wagnerism’s erosi on in a timely way. As a result, organized labour has also adopted a legal s trategy aimed at constitutionalizing labour rights. In assessing thi s strategy we need to ask two questions. The first is whether the Constitution ca n require or protect Wagnerism. The second, and more important one, is w hether the Constitution can require or protect meaningful labour rights mor e generally. I’m skeptical on both counts. But first, a short review. As is well known, prior to the Charter of Rights an d Freedoms, about the only role of Canadian constitutional law in the lab our area was the determination that labour was a matter of property and civil rights and therefore primarily a matter of provincial jurisdiction. 21 Sometimes labour laws were struck down because one level of government exceede d its authority, but the courts’ role was limited. It is perhaps fortuitous that the Charter came into force at the moment when the Canadian state began its tur n towards neo-liberalism, but the fact that the Charter was in play as it hap pened made it almost inevitable that the labour movement would seek its protection when governments enacted back-to-work legislation. This produced the first l abour trilogy in which the Supreme Court of Canada declared that freedom of as sociation protects the freedom to form associations but not the freedom to engage in activities central to the association’s purposes. 22 Therefore, while the government could not 13 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 prohibit trade union formation, it was free to rest rict collective bargaining and strikes. The first indication that the court was prepared to go beyond this very thin conception of freedom of association appeared in Dunmore where the court decisively held that freedom of association not onl y protects the freedom of individuals to do in association that which they we re legally free to do individually, but also that it would protect some g roup activities that did not have an individual analog. 23 This included the freedom to make group representations, although not the freedom to bargai n collectively. But a Charter of freedoms (and not rights) in the field of labour provides no protection at all for private sector workers who might face retaliation f rom employers for exercising their freedoms. Recognizing this, the SCC also acce pted that in limited circumstances, where workers could not enjoy Charte r-protected freedoms without rights, the Charter might also require the state to protect freedom of association with rights that imposed duties on empl oyers not to interfere with associational freedoms. Farm workers were such a gr oup and so one element of Wagnerism (although not an element unique to Wagner ism) was constitutionally required: the right not suffer adverse employment c onsequences for engaging in associational activities. As well, because the cour t recognized that a core associational freedom was the freedom to make colle ctive representations that too was protected activity. This was not quite Wagn erism though because the court did not say that freedom of association prote cted collective bargaining, only the freedom to make collective representations . The Ontario government responded by enacting the Agricultural Employees Protection Act (AEPA), which provided farm workers only with the m inimum rights and freedoms that the court had stipulated, except in one regard. 24 The court had spoken only about the freedom to make col lective representations. It had not attached a correlative duty on agricultural employers to respond to those representations, which was understandable given tha t the court was still unwilling to extend freedom of association to colle ctive bargaining, a process that by its very nature requires some level of empl oyer engagement. But the AEPA provided that employers were obliged to listen to oral representations and read written ones (call this Dunmore +). However, given the deep historical animosity of agricultural employers to trade unions , it was pretty obvious that the regime would not enable farm workers to establi sh collective bargaining relationships with their employers and that turned out to be the case in the few cases where farm workers tried to use the AEPA (Han ley 2012). In the meantime, the SCC threw overboard its first trilogy in BC Health Services in 2007 and declared that freedom of association d id protect a limited right to collective bargaining. 25 We need not parse the judgments here; it has been done elsewhere (e.g., Fudge 2008; Tucker 2008) . The important point for our purposes was that the SCC not only found that freed om of association protects Tucker 14 the freedom to bargain collectively, but that for t hat freedom to be meaningful there must also be a duty on employers to bargain i n good faith. This clearly embraced a core principle of Wagnerism: employers h ave a duty to bargain in good faith with unions and, perhaps, with associati ons of employees. The SCC, however, was also quick to point out the limits of its holding. First, the Charter applied only to government, so while th e government could not refuse to bargain in good faith, it was not necessa rily the case that the government had a positive obligation to include suc h a duty in its private sector labour laws. Second, the Charter did not protect a right to a particular outcome, but rather to a process. Third, notwithstanding the court’s finding that the process entailed a duty to bargain in good faith (a rguably a very Wagnerian element) the court stipulated that the Charter prot ects a general process of collective bargaining, rather than a particular mod el (e.g., Wagnerism). Fourth, the Charter did not protect against all interferenc es with collective bargaining, but only substantial interferences. Finally, the SC C also made it clear that it was not deciding whether freedom of association protect ed the right to strike. The immediate impact of the decision was to put gov ernment on notice that legislation prohibiting collective bargaining, abro gating collective agreements and unilaterally and peremptorily imposing terms an d conditions on unionized employees were constitutionally suspect. So to a li mited extent, the Charter seemed to protect public sector Wagnerism in the ge neral sense that it required the state to bargain in good faith with groups of i ts employees and limited significant and unjustifiable state interference wi th the collective bargaining process. This was no small measure of protection in an environment in which governments have little patience with public sector unionism. Whether the Charter will protect anything more than this, or even this much, remains to be seen. The courts have made one thing clear: the Charter does not require other elements of Wagnerism. In particular, in Fraser , the SCC overruled the Ontario Court of Appeal’s (OCA) holding that th e AEPA failed to pass constitutional muster after Health Services because it did not protect agricultural workers’ right to bargain collectively. 26 The OCA had ruled that constitutionally valid farm worker collective bargaining legislation must provide for majoritarian exclusivity, which the AEPA did not. Of course, it is arguable that the OCA imposed that requirement not because they believed that Wagnerism in general was constitutionally required but rather because in the particular circumstances of agricultural workers in Ontario no other regime would enable them to enjoy collective bargaining. But the SCC did not have far m workers very much in mind in their Fraser judgments. 27 Instead, they used the case to emphasize, in the strongest terms, that Wagnerism generally is not co nstitutionally mandated. The more troubling question though is what labour r ights are constitutionally protected after Fraser? Presumably, the core of Dunmore remains unaffected. Freedom of association protects the freedom to form associations and to make 15 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 collective representations, and where it can be est ablished that groups of workers cannot meaningfully enjoy those freedoms without ri ghts the state will be obliged to provide them. Also, the SCC insisted tha t Health Services remains valid law, notwithstanding a spirited attack on the decis ion by two concurring justices who would have overruled it and another concurrence that would have read Health Services so narrowly as to achieve the same result. However, Fraser did introduce considerable uncertainty about the meanin g of Health Services . One question is the test that has to be met before the state’s obligation to impose rights to protect freedoms kicks in. Arguabl y, a rights-seeker may have to demonstrate that it is “effectively impossible” to enjoy associational freedoms absent the statutory rights being sought. Hence far m workers lost in Fraser because they could not show it was impossible for t hem to enjoy their protected freedoms with the rights given to them under the AE PA (properly interpreted). The impossibility standard has also been imposed in the context of challenges to positive state action that allegedly limits associa tional activity. For example, the Federal Court of Appeal upheld the Expenditure Restraint Act, which rolled back previously approved pay increases for RCMP officers on the ground that it “did not make it impossible for members of the RCMP to a chieve workplace goals.” 28 A second and, perhaps, more problematic feature of Fraser is what is has to say about the scope of freedom of association itsel f. While there were ambiguities in Health Services , it seemed fairly clear that freedom of associatio n extended to collective bargaining, not merely to making collect ive representations. Moreover, since the court could not conceive of an effective freedom to bargain collectively without a correlative duty on employers to bargain in good faith as this was understood in Canadian Wagnerism, it imposed this d uty as a constitutional requirement as well. It therefore followed that if private sector workers could not enjoy the freedom to bargain collectively without p ositive state support, then the state would be under a duty to legislatively impose a duty to bargain in good faith on private sector employers. That was the the ory of the plaintiff’s case in Fraser. After Fraser, this proposition is dubious. Rather, it seems, fr eedom of association protects the freedom to make collective representations and if it is effectively impossible for private sector workers t o have their representations considered in good faith then the government has a positive obligation to impose such a duty. The AEPA, properly interpreted (pumped up to Dunmore ++), was found to impose such a duty and so it passed consti tutional muster. Similarly, in cases alleging positive state interference, the cou rts have asked whether it was still possible to have collective representations c onsidered in good faith. 29 Of course, we do not know what it means concretely for employers to have a duty to consider collective representations in good faith. It is possible that this duty could be interpreted so that it is not substan tially different from a duty to bargain in good faith as it is conventionally under stood, but it may not be. 30 In that case, something less will pass muster and if t hat something less is that Tucker 16 employers must listen to oral representations and r ead written ones, and then can respond by saying, “thank you very much but hav ing carefully considered your representations we are not prepared to accept them,” then the game will hardly be worth the candle. Not only would this be Wagnerism watered down to thin gruel, but the adoption of such an approach wo uld also relieve government of any constitutional obligation to protect or prov ide meaningful collective bargaining in the Canadian context. 31 How thin this gruel will be may ultimately depend o n what the court does in the area of dispute resolution. Under Wagnerism (bu t not exclusively Wagnerism) the duty to bargain in good faith does n ot guarantee any particular outcome. Ultimately, the result of negotiations dep ends on bargaining power, which in the case of labour is contingent on the un ion’s ability to inflict significant economic harm on an employer by collect ively withdrawing labour— striking. Collective bargaining without this power degrades into collective begging. No one believes that the Charter guarantees some level of bargaining leverage, but many argue that it does protect the f reedom to strike because absent that freedom, the freedom to bargain collect ively—or even to make collective representations—is meaningless. The original Trilogy roundly rejected the claim tha t freedom of association protected the freedom to strike. Health Services, although not deciding the issue, disparaged the reasoning that supported the Trilogy ’s holding, and so it is (or should be) an open question whether the Charter pro tects the freedom to strike. A trial-level judgment in Saskatchewan held that th e Charter does protect the freedom to strike, but the Saskatchewan Court of Ap peal overturned the judgment, holding that the Trilogy was still good l aw as it applied to strikes until the SCC ruled otherwise. 32 Leave to appeal to the SCC is going to be sought, and there are other right-to-strike cases in the works so it’s only a matter of time until the SCC will pronounce on this issue. Given the vagaries of the SCC’s freedom of associat ion jurisprudence, there is little point in speculating about what it might do. Nevertheless, it might be useful to think conceptually about the alternatives and their relation to Wagnerism. Of course, the SCC could confirm the Lab our Trilogy as it relates to dispute resolution generally and strikes in particu lar and then there is nothing more to say. Indeed, it has been suggested by the S askatchewan Court of Appeal that this is how Fraser should be read: freedom of association only protect s the right to make representations to have those represe ntations considered in good faith. 33 If that is the case, then collective labour rights generally, not just the Wagnerian version, will enjoy little meaningful con stitutional protection. However, if the court is prepared to say that freed om of association requires some form of dispute resolution, then the door is o pen to a number of possibilities. As noted, in Wagnerism strikes and l ockouts are the preferred mechanism for resolving bargaining impasses. It is the ability of a union to 17 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 threaten an effective strike that gives it bargaini ng power. Therefore, it might be said that the constitutionalization of the freedom to strike could properly be characterized as the constitutionalization of Wagne rism. But that is misleading in that the freedom to strike is not unique to Wagneri sm but present in many, but not all, systems of industrial relations and is rec ognized in international law as a fundamental labour right. So the SCC could, if it c hooses, protect the freedom to strike as a core feature of freedom of association, not because they are protecting a Wagnerian model of labour relations, but rather b ecause freedom of association and the freedom to strike are intimately related in Canadian labour history (pre- dating the adoption of Wagnerism). The freedom to s trike is the mechanism that makes collective bargaining effective in Canada, an d the freedom to strike is recognized in international law. Alternatively, the court may say freedom of associa tion protects some mechanism of dispute resolution, but that the freed om to strike is only one of several possible ones and it is not the business of the court to constitutionalize any particular model of collective bargaining, Wagn erian or otherwise. But presumably the court would want to set out some pri nciples about constitutionally acceptable dispute resolution prin ciples, and presumably those principles would not permit the unilateral impositi on of terms and conditions by the employer. Rather, we would expect to see the co urt say something about having a dispute resolution mechanism that provides workers with a meaningful opportunity to enjoy freedom of association, which includes the ability to influence the terms and conditions of their employm ent through collective bargaining. Neutral third-party binding arbitration might pass constitutional muster under this standard insofar as it provides w orkers with some leverage in bargaining, assuming employers would prefer not to have collective agreements written by third parties. One last matter we might touch on briefly is whethe r the Charter would protect the labour movement against right-to-work l aws. In Canada, the Rand formula, requiring all members of the bargaining un it to pay union dues but not be members of the union, is the Wagnerian standard. We know that the courts reject the view that freedom of association require s mandatory Rand. 34 It is also unlikely the court will hold that freedom of associ ation prevents the state from prohibiting Rand or even stronger forms of union se curity. That element of Wagnerism will not be protected. To conclude, it is important to recognize that not all elements that North Americans associate with Wagnerism are unique to it . Therefore, constitutionalizing particular requirements, such a s the freedom to strike is not tantamount to constitutionalizing Wagnerism. Moreov er, in some instances, it is appropriate to constitutionalize an element of Wagn erism, not because it is Wagnerism, but because that is what is minimally re quired for workers to enjoy freedom of association in the work context. That is the reason why the freedom Tucker 18 to engage in associational activities requires a du ty imposed on employers not to engage in unfair labour practices. But, even if the SCC upholds core elements of Wagne rism against legislative assault, or requires legislatures to enact them, it is unlikely to significantly alter the trajectory of collective bargaining in Canada. And the same conclusion also probably holds if the court rejects Wagnerism but c onstitutionally protects or requires some other set of fundamental labour right s, whether it be minority unionism or some bare-bones protection of concerted worker activity and the making of collective representations. III. WAGNERISM’S SHRINKING DOMINION There is no shortage of articles in the United Stat es and Canada that make the point that Wagnerism is not working well for worker s (Burkett 2013; Goddard 2013; Goddard 2013). The conclusion is not new. Lef t critics of Wagnerism have been pointing out its limitations for decades (e.g. , Fudge, Glasbeek and Tucker 1991) but were mostly ignored by industrial plurali st scholars who believed deeply in its promise. But the ranks of the believe rs are now so depleted that one would be hard pressed to find one. What went wrong? Again, there is a story about how the new political economy has radically c hanged the context in which Wagnerism operates, which hardly needs repeating. H owever, there is one additional point, which pluralists often resist, an d that is the transformation from weak Keynesianism to strong neo-liberalism is best viewed as a class project, not the outcome of natural processes of adjustment (Har vey 2005). This has important implications for thinking about the futur e. But first, Wagnerism. John O’Grady published an art icle in 1992, in which he predicted that private sector union density in Onta rio would decline to between 16 and 17 percent by the end of the decade (O’Grad y 1992). O’Grady was unduly pessimistic. In 2000, private sector unionis m had only fallen to 18.1 percent. It took another four years until it droppe d below 17 percent. O’Grady based his assessment on the gap between the growth in employment and the growth in union membership. He argued that the majo r reason why the growth of trade union membership lagged behind the growth in employment was to be found in WAM, and in particular in its definition o f bargaining units and the radically decentralized process of organizing and b argaining that it entailed. Single workplace bargaining units created obstacles to organizing, especially in the small business sector where employer opposition was likely to be greater and more effective. Moreover, outside of large-scale en terprises (100 or more employees), whose share of the labour force had dec lined from 69 percent in 1978 to 61 percent in 1986, the costs of organizing and representing workers were large relative to the gains in membership and dues, and bargaining 19 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 strength was likely to be low, reducing the attract iveness of union coverage to potential members. The situation for unions is now worse than when O’G rady wrote. Private sector unionization in Ontario dropped to 15.3 per cent in 2012. In Canada it stands at 17.7 percent. 35 As well, trade union bargaining leverage has decli ned. While this is more difficult to document, one measu re is the union wage premium. In January, 1997, the average hourly rate of unionized workers in Canada was 30.3 percent more than unionized worker s, while in June, 2013, that had dropped to 23.7. 36 As well, the frequency of strikes and lockouts has plummeted, as is shown in Figure 1. Some part of the decline can be attributed to the l egislative erosion documented in the first part of this article. The s hift from card-count certification procedures to mandatory elections in Ontario and mu ch of Canada has had an impact. But even if we returned to card-counts and implemented other pro- labour reforms, including easier union access to wo rkers, better regulation of anti-union tactics and improved remedies for unfair labour practices, it is unlikely that private sector unions could return to the densities they reached at their peak. The problems run deeper. It is the mism atch between the Wagner model in which the default is no union and in which workplaces become unionized on a site-by-site basis. The conditions t hat O’Grady identified have not improved significantly: the share of employment in the large business sector (100 and more) has rebounded slightly to 64 percent; 37 labour market churning has slightly declined (Morissette and Qiu 2013); the p ercentage of self-employed workers and workers holding part-time and temporary jobs has slightly increased. 38 Under these conditions, even when unions re-alloca te resources into organizing, it is hard to gain density. Figure 1 Days Lost Per 1000 Workers, Public Sector and Priva te Sector, 1979-2007 39 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Days Lost per 1000 Public Sector Workers Days Lost per 1000 Private Sector Workers Public Sector Strike Trend Tucker 20 For example, in the fiscal year 2010-2011, the late st year for which data is available, private sector Ontario unions successful ly certified 428 new units, bringing in 15,280 new covered employees, with an a verage of 35.7 employees per new bargaining unit. Of these, 48.4 percent of these newly certified units had less than 10 employees. Only 36 of these newly cert ified units had 100 or more employees and, of these, only 2 had more than 500 ( Ontario Labour Relations Board 2011). Organizing such small units is clearly resource intensive and the likelihood of these newly certified bargaining unit s establishing strong and stable collective bargaining relationships is low. Moreove r, over the same period of time, many unionized manufacturing firms were shutt ing down or shedding jobs. So the overall increase in the number of empl oyees covered by collective agreements between 2010 and 2011 was about 8,900. O ver this same period of time, the number of private sector employees in Ont ario increased by about 58,900. 40 At the end of the day, the labour movement had jus t about been able to hold the line, getting 15.1 percent of the increase covered by collective agreements. Unions need to run hard just to stand s till. In short, Wagnerism’s basic model—that workers must opt into collective bargaining, bargaining unit by bargaining unit, and that collective bargaining is to occur on an extremely fragmented basis—creates a n organizing and bargaining model that poses severe problems for the establishment of effective trade unions. In the past, unions were often able t o partially overcome these barriers in particular sectors of the economy, espe cially large manufacturing, resource extraction, construction and the regulated private sector. Their ability to do so today is diminished as jobs in the large manu facturing sector are being lost and fewer sectors of the economy are shielded from competition because of free trade and de-regulation. Under these conditions, fi ghting to preserve or strengthen Wagnerism, whether through political act ion or constitutional litigation may bring some amelioration, but it is n ot the long-term answer labour needs to reverse its declining dominion. IV. WHAT IS TO BE DONE? It is customary in articles announcing the death of Wagnerism to end with a section identifying legal reforms that point the wa y forward, but usually these efforts suffer from forced optimism. Here I come ba ck to David Harvey’s earlier observation that the ascendancy of neoliberalism is a class project not a natural process of adjustment (Harvey 2005). This is an imp ortant insight because if it is true then appeals for more labour-management cooper ation or normative arguments that collective labour rights are a good thing are unlikely to have much traction. New governance theories call for big sticks to step in where self- regulation fails, but there is no prospect for big stick legislation (Estlund 2010); employer neutrality agreements are legal in Canada but are little used and the 21 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 most recent experiment with them, the Framework of Fairness agreement between the CAW and Magna, yielded nothing (Doorey 2013; Van Alphen 2011). Employee participation plans are also legal in Cana da and some employers have made use of them (e.g., Magna, WestJet) but in gene ral these arrangements have not spread much beyond joint health and safety comm ittees that are legally required (Lewchuk and Wells 2007; Stephenson 2013) ; minority unions in Canada have no right to bargain for their members o nly (although they are free to try), but even if they gained such a right, 41 is there any prospect, outside perhaps of some small niches, that minority unions could bargain effectively in a decentralized bargaining regime and establish a bea chhead from which strong unions could grow? 42 I think a frank assessment must start from the prem ise that at present there is no legal solution to labour’s difficulties that is within reach, politically or through constitutional litigation. We are more likely to wi tness legislative degradation of Wagnerism than to it being strengthened or replaced with laws that will better promote collective labour rights and constitutional litigation will likely, at best, protect thin labour rights, primarily in the public sector. This is not to say that efforts to protect existing labour rights against f urther degradation should be abandoned, but rather to recognize that holding on to what we’ve got will not fundamentally alter the trajectory of organized lab our’s decline. More promising then are accounts of workers and uni ons trying to break out of the mould in which they have been shaped (or sha ped themselves) under Wagnerism and experimenting with new ways of organi zing and representing workers. In a recent article addressing the situati on in the United States, Ruth Milkman has pointed growing experimentation with a diversity of organization forms and strategies that in some ways resemble the way the labour movement operated prior to the Wagner Act. Broadly defined a s “alt-labour”, these include worker centers, organizations of fast-food and reta il workers like “Our Walmart”, associations of independent contractors, etc. Notably, the immediate goal of these organizations is not to become certif ied bargaining agents, but rather to improve working conditions through media campaigns, boycotts and brief demonstration strikes to shame and pressure e mployers, and political campaigns undertaken in alliance with other communi ty-based organizations and progressive activists to raise minimum wages to living wages or better enforce existing labour laws (Milkman 2013; Early 2 013). So it is not the case that alt-labour is abandoning legal and legislative change as a strategic objective. Rather, it is that the im mediate goal is not the preservation of Wagnerism but the building of new o rganizational forms and strategic capacities through which workers’ collect ive class interests can be represented and advanced outside of traditional col lective bargaining. Traditional collective bargaining, of course, will continue in those sectors where Tucker 22 it is viable, as will struggles to protect it, but a single-minded focus on expanding union density through the Wagner Act model is no lo nger a viable strategy. NOTES 1 With apologies to Dylan Thomas, “And Death Shall Have No Dominion,” in The Collected Poems of Dylan Thomas (1957). 2 Majoritarian exclusivity is the requirement that unions establish majority support of a bargaining unit to obtain bargaining rights and t hat once they do so they represent all members of the bargaining unit. 3 On the importance of Wagnerism’s limiting feature s, see Fudge and Glasbeek (1994- 1995) and Adams (1994-1995). 4 R v Saskatchewan Federation of Labour, 2013 SKCA 43, paras. 61-65. 5 Other recent expressions of concern over the future of WAM include, Lynk (2014); Slinn (2014); Burkett (2013)(focusing on the expand ed role of courts and government at the expense of labour boards); and Goddard (2013 ) (focusing on the strengths and weaknesses of Wagnerism that simultaneously undermi ne its effectiveness and the motivation of unions to seek fundamental reforms). 6 Calculated from Statistics Canada, The Labour For ce Survey, June 2013. These data do not allow for a precise calculation because the percentage of the workforce in each province covered by federal law is not provided. T he five provinces contain about 30 percent of the labour force, but this does not incl ude the percentage of the labour force in the other provinces and territories that c ome under federal law. Overall, the federal jurisdiction is estimated to cover less tha n ten percent of the labour force. 7 For discussion of these changes and the current s tate of Ontario labour law as it affects organizing, see Bartkiw (2008). There is a further point that I will address in part 3. Banks’ is largely concerned with measuring the economic impact of free trade on labour rights, and argues that politics may be m ore important than economics in this regard. Leaving aside the question of the lin kages between economics and politics, Banks’ discussion of economic influence f ails to take into account the impact of the changing economic environment on the effecti veness of labour law. There has been a significant decline in trade union density, particularly in the private sector, during the free trade era, driven in part by change s in industry structure, employment practices and an increase in employer op position to collective bargaining, all of which are arguably exacerbated b y free trade. The fact that private sector trade union density and bargaining power is occurring without a legislative assault on trade union rights arguably reduces the demand for such action. 8 The current version of Bill 5 is Public Service Essential Services Act, SS 2008, c P -42.2 and Bill 6 was an amendment to The Trade Union Act, RSS 1978, c T-17. 9 To see Bill 85 as introduced, visit: http://docs.legassembly.sk.ca/legdocs/Bills/27L2S/B ill27-85.pdf 10 Saskatchewan Employment Act , S.S. 2013, S-15.1. 11 Restoring Mail Delivery for Canadians Act , S.C. 2011, c. 17. 12 Ibid., s. 11(2). 13 Canada Labour Code , RSC 1985, c L-2. 23 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 14 Protecting Air Service Act , S.C. 2012, c. 2. 15 Ibid., ss. 14(4) and 29(2). 16 Restoring Rail Service Act, S.C. 2012, c. 8. 17 Economic Action Plan 2013Act, No. 1 , S.C. 2013, c. 33, s. 229. 18 Economic Action Plan 2013Act, No. 2 , S.C. 2013, c. 40, Div. 17. 19 There are other changes not discussed here. For a more detailed survey, see Rootham (n.d). 20 See Benzie (2012); Brennan (2014); An Act to amend the Canada Labour Code, the Parliamentary Employment and Staff Relations Act an d the Public Service Labour Relations Act (certification and revocation — bargaining agen t), Bill C-525. On 29 January 2014 the Bill received second reading and was referred to co mmittee. 21 The Toronto Electric Commissioners v Colin G. Snide r and others [1925] UKPC 2 , [1925] AC 396 (20 January 1925), P.C. (on appeal from Ontario). 22 Public Service Employee Relations Act (Alta.), 19 87 CanLII 88 (SCC), [1987] 1 SCR 313; PSAC v. Canada, 1987 CanLII 89 (SCC), [1987] 1 SCR 424; and RWDSU v. Saskatchewan, 1987 CanLII 90 (SCC), [1987] 1 SCR 46 0 23 Dunmore v. Ontario (Attorney General), 2001 SCC 9 4 (CanLII), [2001] 3 SCR 1016. 24 Agricultural Employees Protection Act, 2002, SO 2002, c 16. 25 Health Services and Support – Facilities Subsecto r Bargaining Assn. v. British Columbia, 2007 SCC 27 (CanLII), [2007] 2 SCR 391. 26 Fraser v. Ontario (Attorney General), 2008 ONCA 7 60 (CanLII) and Ontario (Attorney General) v. Fraser, 2011 SCC 20, [2011] 2 SCR 3 27 See Tucker (2012). For the view that the OCA di d not have empirical evidence of the need for majoritarian exclusivity, see Bartkiw (200 9). 28 Robert Meredith, et al v. Attorney General of Can ada, 2013 FCA 112, para. 90. The impossibility standard was also applied in Mounted Police Association of Ontario v. Canada (Attorney General), 2102 ONCA 363. Leave to appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada has been granted in both cases. 29 Ibid. 30 The duty to bargain in good faith itself is notor iously difficult to enforce given the problematic distinction between hard bargaining, wh ich is permitted, and bad faith bargaining, which is not (Langille and Macklem 1988 ). The meaning of a duty to consult in good faith is uncertain. For a recent j udgment that gives that duty some teeth, see British Columbia Teachers’ Federation v. British Columbia, 2014 BCSC 121 (CanLII). However, the case is under appeal and th e lower court’s declaration of unconstitutionality has been stayed. See British C olumbia Teachers’ Federation v. British Columbia, 2014 BCCA 75 (CanLII). 31 A compromise between the duty to bargain in good faith and simply a duty to listen might be that whatever process is provided it must not make it impossible for workers acting collectively to meaningfully influen ce workplace conditions. So, provided government action does not render a proces s of consultation “pointless” then it will pass constitutional muster. See Mered ith, supra., para. 92. 32 See Saskatchewan v. Saskatchewan Federation of La bour, 2012 SKQB 62 (CanLII) and R v Saskatchewan Federation of Labour, 2013 SKCA 43 (CanLII), Tucker 24 33 See R v Saskatchewan Federation of Labour, 2013 SKCA 43 (CanLII) at paras. 58-59. 34 See Alberta LRB decision, Old Dutch Foods, http://www.canlii.org/en/ab/ablrb/doc/2009/2009canl ii61316/2009canlii61316.ht ml required Rand as a constitutional guarantee. It was reversed on other grounds and the Alberta Court of Appeal declined to hear th e constitutional argument since the case was moot. See Alberta (Attorney General) v. United Food and Commercial Workers Union, Local No. 401, 2010 ABQB 777 (CanLII ), and 2011 ABCA 93 (CanLII) viewed on 2013-09-04 35 Calculated from Statistics Canada, CANSIM, Table 282-0078. 36 Calculated from Statistics Canada, CANSIM, Table 282-0073. 37 Calculated from CANSIM Table 281-0042. 38 Self-employment has grown from 14 percent in 1990 to 15.2 percent in 2012 (calculated from Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 28 2-0012); part-time employment has grown from 17 percent to 18.8 percent over the same period (calculated from Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 282-0002); and temp orary employment increased from 11.3 percent in 1997 to 13.6 percent in 2012 ( calculated from CANSIM Table 282- 0080). 39 From Tucker (forthcoming). 40 Calculated from Statistics Canada, CANSIM, Table 282-0078. 41 Does anyone really expect that a Canadian legisla ture will enact a law compelling employers to bargain with minority unions, or belie ve that the courts will hold freedom of association requires private sector empl oyers to negotiate with or consider representations from minority unions or re quires government to enact legislation imposing such a duty? 42 For a positive assessment in the US context that also acknowledges the risks, see Fisk and Tashlitsky (2011). REFERENCES Adams, R. 1995. “Pernicious Euphoria: 50 Years of Wagnerism in Canada.” Canadian Labour and Employment Law Journal 3(3/4): 321-356. Arthurs, H. 2006. “By What Immortal Hand or Eye? – “Who Will Redraw the Boundaries of Labour Law?” Pp. 373-390 in Boundaries and Frontiers of Labour Law: Goals and Means in the Regulation of Work , edited by G. Davidov and B. Langille. Portland, OR: Hart Publishing. Banks, K. 2013. “Must Canada Change its Labour and Employment Laws to Compete with the United States?” Queen’s Law Journal 38(2): 419-460. Bartkiw, T. 2009. “Proceed with Caution, or Stop W henever Possible? Ongoing Paradoxes in Legalized Labour Politics.” Canadian Labour and Employment Law Journal 15: 77-100. ——— 2008. “Manufacturing Descent? Labour Law and Union Organizing in the Province of Ontario.” Canadian Public Policy 34(1): 111-131. 25 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 Benzie, R. 2012. “Tim Hudak Promises Sweeping Chang es to Strip Unions of Power.” Toronto Star 27 June 2012. Brennan, R.J. 2014. “Tim Hudak Renounces Anti-Union Right-to-Work Plan.” Toronto Star 21 February 2014. Burkett, B. 2013. “The Future of the Wagner Act: A Canadian-American Comparison.” Queen’s Law Journal 38(2): 363-390. Curry, B. 2013. “We don’t work for ‘union bosses’ T ories Say.” Globe and Mail 1 May 2013. Doorey, D. “Are neutrality agreements” unlawful emp loyer support to a union?” Law of Work Blog . Retrieved February 18, 2014 (http://lawofwork.ca/?p=668 ). Employment and Social Development Canada. 2011. “Mi nister Raitt refers Air Canada concerns to the Canadian Industrial Relation s Board.” Employment and Social Development Canada. Retrieved 18 February 2014 (http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=627689 ). ———- 2012. “Government of Canada introduces l egislation to protect the Canadian economy.” Employment and Social Development Canada. Retrieved 18 February 2014 (http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=662219 ). Early, S. 2013. Save Our Unions . New York: Monthly Review Press. Estlund, C. 2010. Regoverning the Workplace: From Self-Regulation to Co-Regulation. New Haven: Yale University Press. ——— 2002 “The Ossification of American Labor Law.” Columbia Law Review . 102(6): 1527. Fisk, C. and Tashlitsky, X. 2011. “Imagine a World Where Employers Are Required to Bargain with Minority Unions.” Journal of Labor and Employment Law 27(1). Fudge, J. 2008. “The Supreme Court of Canada and th e Right to Bargain Collectively: The Implications of the Health Servic es and Support case in Canada and Beyond.” Industrial Law Journal 37(1): 25-48. Fudge, J. and Glasbeek, H. 1994-1995. “Legacy of P C 1003.” Canadian Labour and Employment Law Journal . 3: 357-399. Fudge, J., Glasbeek, H. and Tucker, E. 1991. “A Ba ng and a Whimper: Changing Labour Law in Ontario.” Our Times 22(7). Goodard, J. 2013. “Labour Law and Union Recognitio n in Canada: A Historical- Institutionalist Perspective.” Queen’s Law Journal 38(2): 391-417. Hanley, W. 2012. “The Roots of Organizing Agricultu ral Workers in Canada.” Pp. 57-80 in Constitutional Labour Rights in Canada: Farm Worker s and the Fraser Case, edited by F. Faraday, J. Fudge and E. Tucker. Toronto: Irwin. Harvey, D. 2005. A Brief History of Neo-Liberalism. New York: Oxford University Press. Tucker 26 International Labour Association: Committee on Free dom of Association. 2013. 367 th Report of the Committee on Freedom of Association. Retrieved 18 February 2014 (http://www.ilo.org/gb/GBSessions/GB317/ins/WCMS_208 542/lang– en/index.htm ). Johnson, S. 2004. “The Impact of Mandatory Votes on The Canada-US Union Density Gap: A Note.” Industrial Relations 43(2): 356-363. Langille, B and Macklem, P. 1988. “Beyond Belief: Labour Law’s Duty to Bargain.” Queen’s Law Journal 13(1): 62-102. Lewchuk, W and D. Wells. 2007 “Transforming Worker Representation: The Magna Model in Canada and Mexico.” Labour/Le Travail 60: 107-136. Lynk, M. 2014 “Labour Law and Labour Rights: The Wa gner Act in Canada.” in Unions Matter: Advancing Democracy, Economic Equalit y, and Social Justice, edited by M. Behrens. Toronto: Between the Lines. Milkman, R. 2013. “Back to the Future? US Labour in the New Gilded Age.” British Journal of Industrial Relations 51(4): 645-665. Morissette, R., Y. Lu, and T. Qiu. 2013. “Worker Re allocation in Canada.” (Statistics Canada, Analytic Studies Branch Paper S eries, 11F0019M No. 348, March 2013). Retrieved 18 February 2014. (http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m20133 48-eng.pdf ) O’Grady, J. 1992. “Beyond the Wagner Act, What Then ? Pp. 153-169 in Getting on Track: Democratic Strategies for Ontario , edited by D. Drache. Montreal: McGill- Queen’s University Press. Ontario Labour Relations Board. 2011. Annual Report 2010-2011. Toronto: Ontario Labour Relations Board. Retrieved 18 February 2014. (http://www.olrb.gov.on.ca/english/AnnualReports/OLR B-AnnualReport-2010- 11.pdf ). Panitch, L. and D. Swartz. 2003. From Consent to Coercion: The Assault on Trade Union Freedoms. Aurora, ON: Garamond Press. Riddell, C. 2004. “Union Certification Success Unde r Voting Versus Card-Check Procedures: Evidence from British Columbia, 1978-19 98.” Industrial and Labour Relations Review 57(4): 493-517. Rootham, C. et al. n.d. “Bill C-4: A Series of Retr ograde Changes to Labour Relations in the Federal Public Service.” Nelligan, O’Brien, Payne. Retrieved 18 Februay 2014. (http://www.nelligan.ca/e/billc4seriesretrogradechan geslabourrelationsfederalpub licservice.cfm ). Saskatchewan Federation of Labour. 2013. “Labour Re ps on Minister’s Advisory Committee Urge Reconsideration of Bill 85 (Saskatch ewan Employment Act).” Retrieved February 18 2014 27 Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society —Volume 21 —Spring 2014 ( http://www.sfl.sk.ca/uploads/File/News percent20Rel ease percent20- percent20Advisory percent20Committee percent20Calls percent20for percent20Reconsideration percent20of percent20Bill percent2085.pdf ). Saskatchewan, Ministry of Labour Relations and Work place Safety. 2012. “A Consultation Paper on the Renewal of Labour Relatio ns in Saskatchewan.”Retrieved February 18 2014 (http://www.lrws.gov.sk.ca/consultation-paper-renewa l-labour-legislation ). Secunda, P. 2013. “The Wagner Model of Labour Law i s Dead—Long Live Labour Law.” Queen’s Law Journal 38(2): 545-581. Slinn, S. 2014. “Whither Wagner? Reconsidering Lab or Law and Policy Reform.” Osgoode Hall Law School Legal Studies Research Pape r Series 10(3). Retrieved 4 March 2014 (http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id= 2398535 ). ———2008. “No Right (to Organize) Without a Re medy: Evidence and Consequences of the Failure to Provide Compensatory Remedies for Unfair Labour Practices in British Columbia.” McGill Law Journal 53(4): 687-737. ——— 2004. “An Empirical Analysis of the Effec ts of the Change from Card- Check to Mandatory Vote Certification.” Canadian Labour and Employment Law Journal 11: 259-391. Slinn, S. and R. Hurd. 2011. “First Contract Arbitr ation and the Employee Free Choice Act: Multi-Jurisdictional Evidence from Cana da.” Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations 18: 41-86. Stevens, A. 2013. “Saskatchewan: A Beachhead of Lab our Law Reform?” The Bullet: Socialist Project 812. Retrieved 18 February 2014 (http://www.socialistproject.ca/bullet/812.php ) Stephenson, A. 2013. “Flight Attendants push for un ion at WestJet: CUPE meeting with flight attendants.” Calgary Herald. 18 July 2013. Tucker, E. (forthcoming). “Can Worker Voice Strike Back? Law and the Decline and Uncertain Future of Strikes.” In Voices at Work, edited by A. Bogg and T. Novitz. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ——— 2012. “Farm Worker Exceptionalism: Past, Present and the post-Fraser Future.” In Constitutional Labour Rights in Canada : Farm Workers and the Fraser Case , edited by F. Faraday, J. Fudge and E. Tucker. Tor onto: Irwin. ——— 2008. “The Constitutional Right to Bargai n Collectively: The Ironies of Labour History in the Supreme Court of Canada.” Labour/Le Travail 61: 151- 180 Van Alphen, T. 2011. “Magna’s No-Strike Initiative Fizzles.” Toronto Star. 30 June 2011. Warner, K. 2012. Protecting Fundamental Labor Rights . Washington, D.C.: Center for Economic and Policy Research.

Writerbay.net

Everyone needs a little help with academic work from time to time. Hire the best essay writing professionals working for us today!

Get a 15% discount for your first order


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper