LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT

LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT: A Psychological Perspective By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French

 

 

 

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Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective

By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French (Published 2017)

 

This Open Education Resource (OER) textbook was funded by a grant from the College of Lake County Foundation and supported by the Business and Social Sciences Division.

This textbook can be found at: http://dept.clcillinois.edu/psy/LifespanDevelopment.pdf

Publication is under the following license:

 

 

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 unported license to view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development

Chapter 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth

Chapter 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood

Chapter 4: Early Childhood

Chapter 5: Middle and Late Childhood

Chapter 6: Adolescence

Chapter 7: Emerging and Early Adulthood

Chapter 8: Middle Adulthood

Chapter 9: Late Adulthood

Chapter 10: Death and Dying

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development …………………………………………………………………………… 8

Lifespan Perspective ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 Conceptions of Age ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12 Periods of Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13 Issues in Lifespan Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15 Historical Theories on Development …………………………………………………………………………………………. 16 Contemporary Theories on Development …………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Descriptive Research …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 Correlational Research ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25 Experimental Research ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27 Research Involving Time-Spans ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28 Conducting Ethical Research …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32

Chapter 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth…………………………………………………………………… 34

Heredity …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 Genotypes and Phenotypes …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35 Genetic Disorders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 Chromosomal Abnormalities …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38 Behavioral Genetics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39 Prenatal Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42 The Germinal Period …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42 The Embryonic Period …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43 The Fetal Period …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44 Prenatal Brain Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45 Teratogens ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46 Maternal Factors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52 Prenatal Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56 Complications of Pregnancy …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58 Preparation for Childbirth ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59 Stages of Birth for Vaginal Delivery …………………………………………………………………………………………. 59 Assessing the Neonate …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62 Problems of the Newborn ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63

Chapter 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 68

The Brain in the First Two Years ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 69 Infant Sleep ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71 From Reflexes to Voluntary Movements ……………………………………………………………………………………. 73 Motor Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75 Sensory Capacities ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76 Nutrition ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78 Global Considerations and Malnutrition …………………………………………………………………………………….. 80 Piaget and the Sensorimotor Stage ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 81 Infant Memory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84 Language …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85 Components of Language ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86 Language Developmental Progression ………………………………………………………………………………………. 87

 

 

 

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Theories of Language Development …………………………………………………………………………………….. 89 Temperament ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93 Infant Emotions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95 Forming Attachments ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97 Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 98 Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation Technique …………………………………………………………………… 98 Erikson: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt ………………………………………………………………………………… 102 Measuring Infant Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 103 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103

Chapter 4: Early Childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110

Brain Maturation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111 Motor Skill Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112 Toilet Training …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114 Sleep ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115 Sexual Development in Early Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………….. 116 Nutritional Concerns …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development……………………………………………………………… 118 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development ………………………………………………………… 121 Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122 Attention ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122 Memory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 123 Neo-Piagetians …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 125 Children’s Understanding of the World ……………………………………………………………………………………. 126 Language Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129 Preschool …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129 Autism Spectrum Disorder ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131 Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 133 Self-Concept and Self-Esteem ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134 Self-Control ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134 Gender …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 135 Sibling Relationships …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 139 Play ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141 Children and the Media ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143 Child Care ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143 Child Abuse………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146

Chapter 5: Middle and Late Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………. 153

Sports ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154 Childhood Obesity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157 Concrete Operational Thought ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159 Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161 Language Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163 Communication Disorders ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164 Theories of Intelligence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 165 Measuring Intelligence: Standardization and the Intelligence Quotient ……………………………………………… 169 Extremes of Intelligence: Intellectual Disability and Giftedness ……………………………………………………… 170 Education …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173 Cultural Differences in the Classroom ……………………………………………………………………………………… 173

 

 

 

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Children with Disabilities …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176 Children with Disabilities: Legislation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 180 Erikson: Industry vs. Inferiority ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 182 Self-Understanding …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 182 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development ………………………………………………………………………………… 183 Friends and Peers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185 Bullying …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 187 Family Life……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193

Chapter 6: Adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202

Growth in Adolescence………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 202 Sexual Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203 Adolescent Brain ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 206 Adolescent Sleep ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208 Adolescent Sexual Activity …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 209 Eating Disorders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 210 Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development ………………………………………………………. 212 Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 214 High School Dropouts …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215 Teenagers and Working ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 216 Teenage Drivers …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 217 Self-concept and Self-esteem in Adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………. 218 Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion……………………………………………………………………………………….. 218 Parents and Teens: Autonomy and Attachment ………………………………………………………………………….. 222 Peers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222 Romantic Relationships ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225

Chapter 7: Emerging and Early Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………….. 230

Emerging Adulthood Defined ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230 Cultural Variations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 232 When Does Adulthood Begin? ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 233 Young Adults Living Arrangements ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 234 The Physiological Peak………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 235 Obesity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 236 A Healthy, But Risky Time …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 238 Gender …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240 Sexuality ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 242 Beyond Formal Operational Thought: Postformal Thought …………………………………………………………… 249 Education …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 250 Career Development and

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