Methods Section

Methods Section

Dennishiel Allen

Loyola University of New Orleans

Dr. Grissom

 

Methodology

Medical errors have adverse effects on patients, their families, and health facilities. Some of the consequences of medical errors include avoidable hospitalizations, underuse or overuse of medicines, and wasted resources (Saposnik et al, 2016). Cognitive bias has a significant impact on decision making in healthcare. Errors are inevitable but it is important to develop strategies to reduce them. This study aims at investigating how cognitive bias influences medical in intensive care units. The project methodology, sample selection, instrumentation, data collection, and data analysis procedures will be discussed in this section.

Statement of the problem

Cognitive bias has been identified as one of the leading causes of medical errors in healthcare. 75% of medical errors are cognitive (O’Sullivan & Schofield, 2018). Cognitive bias is the act of processing information based on the existing beliefs of an individual. This causes medical professionals to ignore critical information (Norman et al, 2017). While a lot of research has been conducted on this issue, most of them have focused on other departments of healthcare and very few have focused on the intensive care units.

Research questions

This study will be guided by the following research questions:

· What is the level of cognitive bias among healthcare professionals working in the intensive care units?

· How does cognitive bias impact medical errors?

Research hypothesis

The research hypothesis that will be measured in this research is:

H01: Cognitive bias among healthcare professionals result in medical errors in intensive care units.

HA1: Cognitive bias among healthcare professionals does not result in medical errors in intensive care units

Project methodology

A qualitative methodology has been chosen for this research. This methodology is the best for this study because it will allow participants to give detailed information in their responses. It will not only show the relationship between the variables in this research but will also facilitate an in-depth understanding of that relationship (Silverman, 2020).

Population and sample selection

The population from which the sample to be used in this research will be selected is health professionals working in intensive care units. A sample of 30 health professionals working in intensive care units will be selected for this study. This number is convenient because it will help us to collect enough information for the study while at the same time taking care of the cost and time of conducting the research.

Instrumentation

Questionnaires and interviews will be used to collect the information required in this research. The questionnaires will be open-ended to enable the participants to give detailed responses. The study will also conduct interviews with the participants. Questionnaires and interviews were the best choices for this research because while questionnaires will help to collect large amounts of data faster, interviews will provide an opportunity to clarify the information (Zhang et al, 2017).

Data collection procedures

The participants in the study will be given questionnaires with which they will conduct self-assessments of their levels of cognitive bias. The questionnaires will be submitted in sealed envelopes for purposes of privacy. Interviews will then be arranged where the researcher will investigate how cognitive biases impact medical errors in intensive care units. The questionnaires will be disposed of after the information has been documented.

Data analysis procedures

Once the data has been collected, it will be checked for completeness and errors. Only complete questionnaires will be considered for analysis. A content analysis procedure will be used to analyze the responses from the questionnaires and interviews. It is the best analysis method for this study because it will help to show the connection between the study variables (Erlingsson & Brysiewicz, 2017).

 

 

References

Erlingsson, C., & Brysiewicz, P. (2017). A hands-on guide to doing content analysis. African Journal of Emergency Medicine7(3), 93-99. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211419X17300423

Norman, G. R., Monteiro, S. D., Sherbino, J., Ilgen, J. S., Schmidt, H. G., & Mamede, S. (2017). The causes of errors in clinical reasoning: cognitive biases, knowledge deficits, and dual process thinking. Academic Medicine92(1), 23-30. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jonathan_Sherbino/publication/309465770_The_Causes_of

O’Sullivan, E. D., & Schofield, S. J. (2018). Cognitive bias in clinical medicine. JR Coll Physicians Edinb48(3), 225-32. Retrieved from https://www.rcpe.ac.uk/sites/default/files/jrcpe_48_3_osullivan.pdf

Saposnik, G., Redelmeier, D., Ruff, C. C., & Tobler, P. N. (2016). Cognitive biases associated with medical decisions: a systematic review. BMC medical informatics and decision making16(1), 138. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12911-016-0377-1

Silverman, D. (Ed.). (2020). Qualitative research. Sage Publications Limited. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en HYPERLINK “https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7RwJEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=qualitative+methodology&ots=LXg1N0WY0p&sig=8cCOgyRYzN2iq8GnEvXPRPSz4_M” HYPERLINK “https://books.google.com/books?hl=en HYPERLINK “https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7RwJEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=qualitative+methodology&ots=LXg1N0WY0p&sig=8cCOgyRYzN2iq8GnEvXPRPSz4_M”& HYPERLINK “https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7RwJEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=qualitative+methodology&ots=LXg1N0WY0p&sig=8cCOgyRYzN2iq8GnEvXPRPSz4_M”lr= HYPERLINK “https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7RwJEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=qualitative+methodology&ots=LXg1N0WY0p&sig=8cCOgyRYzN2iq8GnEvXPRPSz4_M”& HYPERLINK “https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7RwJEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=qualitative+methodology&ots=LXg1N0WY0p&sig=8cCOgyRYzN2iq8GnEvXPRPSz4_M”id=7RwJEAAAQBAJ HYPERLINK 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Zhang, X., Kuchinke, L., Woud, M. L., Velten, J., & Margraf, J. (2017). Survey method matters: Online/offline questionnaires and face-to-face or telephone interviews differ. Computers in Human Behavior71, 172-180. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563217300791

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