College of Doctoral Studies
RES -850 Modified 10 Strategic Points Template Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: Thanks to IAN THOMAS for allowing us to use his assignment as a TEMPLATE. GREAT WORK, IAN! Dr. Nelson and the class THANKS You! Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: Dr. Nancy Wigton was the very first graduate from the PhD in Psychology program! Hence, some of her terms do not necessarily follow the current GCU template. Please keep this in mind as you review her exceptional work. (Notice her problem statement deviates from the current template, etc.) You will align your problem statement with the template! 😉 Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson:
|Article Citation||Wigton, N. L. (2014). Evaluating 19-channel Z-score neurofeedback: Addressing efficacy in a clinical setting (Order No. 3625170). Available from Dissertations & Theses @ Grand Canyon University. (1554696501). Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/1554696501?accountid=7374 Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: PLEASE ACCESS THESE RESOURCES. ONE IS FROM YOUR TEXT AND THE OTHER IS THE REAL 10SP TEMPLATE (THAT INCLUDES A SAMPLE AT THE END OF THE TEMPLATE) LOCATED IN THE DC NETWORK. HOPE THESE ARE HELPFUL! DR. NELSON http://lc.gcumedia.com/res850/gcu-doctoral-research-foundations-and-theories/v1.1/#/chapter/7https://dc.gcu.edu/documents/refereancestandards/2013-residency-2/2013-rsd-851/03_2015_supplemental_materials/3_ten_strategic_points_template_with_instructionsdocx Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: This is the correct APA citation|
|Broad Topic Area||An Evaluation of 19-channel Z-score neurofeedback in a clinical setting Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: This should be around 12 words and is somewhat of a working title.||pp. 1-4, particularly pp.1-2|
|Lit Review||· The scarcity of the literature is first discussed and the use of nontraditional sources is addressed (23-24), followed by an historical overview of EEG and NF applications as far back as the 1790s (24-26). Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: This section includes her strongest, most current and relevant literature with citations. You should review her “themes” and can include her “theoretical foundations” and “gap articles” with citations, of course.
· The use of NF techniques in operant conditioning is then discussed, with a comparison of historical operant and classical conditioning techniques (32).
· A description and evaluation of various NF and QEEG techniques is then provided throughout the rest of the literature review; evaluations of the 19ZNF are sparse, as the author discusses, thus nontraditional sources, such as conference posters and presentations, are used (50-53). Finally, a review of tests, scales, and scores is provided (55-59).
|Problem Statement||It is not known, by way of statistical evaluation of either clinical assessments or QEEG z-scores, if 19ZNF is an effective NF technique. This is an important problem because 19ZNF is a new NF model currently in use by a growing number of practitioners, yet scientific research investigating its efficacy is lacking…. Therefore, scientific evidence of efficacy for 19ZNF is needed. Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: Notice how Dr. Wigton’s problem statement is not in the format that is currently used in the newest GCU template. Please make sure YOUR problem statement and purpose statement align with the GCU template—for your success!||pp. 4-5|
|Research Questions||R1a: “Does 19ZNF improve attention measured by the IVA assessment?” Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: Yes, list the RQs.
R1b: “Does 19ZNF improve behavior as measured by the DSMD assessment?”
R1c: “Does 19ZNF improve executive function as measured by the BRIEF assessment?”
R2: “Does 19ZNF improve electrocortical function as measured by QEEG z-scores such that the post z-scores are closer to the mean than pre z-scores?”
A quantitative study was then used to determine z-score regression toward the mean.
|Sample||Twenty-one individuals (both adults and children) currently seeking NF services at a private practice in the Southwest, who may have had symptoms of behavior or mood dysfunction that affected daily functioning. Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: In your 10SP you will estimate your sample population here. For a completed study, we are aware of her exact sample for this study. So, this may come from 2 places depending on what you are reporting: Chapter 3 reports what researcher proposes and Chapter 4 reports the actual sample used. (Note: learners may go back and edit sample in Chapter 3 to align with Chapter 4 actual sample).||p. 67|
|Describe Phenomena (qualitative) or Define Variables/ Hypotheses (quantitative)||Variables: Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: Variables are what Dr. Wigton measured, how she measured them and list her hypotheses.
Dependent: data from assessments using the IVA, DSMD, and BRIEF psychometric tests (Sanford & Turner, 2009; Cooper, 2001; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000; Roth, Isquith, & Gioia, 2005).
Hypotheses (0 and a combined):
H1a: Post scores will be higher or lower/not significant for IVA assessment;
H1b: Post scores will be lower or higher/not significant for DSMD assessment;
H1c: Post scores will be lower or higher/not significant for BRIEF assessment;
H2: Post z-scores will be closer or farther from/not significant from pre z-scores.
|Methodology & Design||Quantitative methodology with a quasi-experimental approach using a retrospective, one-group pretest-posttest design. Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: Retrospective in this context means that she used archival data from previous clients who sought biofeedback treatment.||p. 65|
|Purpose Statement||The purpose of this quantitative, retrospective, one-group, pretest-posttest study research was to compare the difference between pre and post clinical assessments and QEEG z-scores data, before and after 19ZNF sessions, from archived data of a private neurofeedback practice in the Southwest region of the United States. Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: Notice how this must be worded as per the GCU template and it aligns with the problem statement and topic.||p. 5|
|Data Collection Approach||Data was collected from previously completed tests based on consent waivers previously signed. An initial group of subjects was formed that had previously completed either the IVA, DSMD, or BRIEF pre-post assessment instruments. Three additional groups were formed from this group, one for IVA, one for DSMD, and one for BRIEF. Data collected was from pre-existing documents and files with subject identities removed and stored separately. Subjects had been given an intake assessment, followed by the 19ZNF treatment and post assessment. While the 19ZNF protocols may have been altered based on subject baselines, the overall goal of QEEG treatment remained consistent with normalization. Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: Notice how Dr. Wigton outlines the exact process of how data was collected and instruments used (if applicable). The reader should be able to replicate your study, if desired, from your Methodology section 😉||pp. 76-78|
|Data Analysis Approach||Results from questions were incorporated into a spreadsheet and analyzed using the SPSS software and measured against the level of significance (alpha = .05) (79). Descriptive statistics were performed on each sample group, including means for pre, post, and difference scores, with specific scales for IVA, DSMD, and BRIEF/BRIEF-A analyzed separately and measured against the hypotheses (80). The QEEG z-scores were likely computed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and analyzed using SPSS. Z-score data were examined for absolute/relative power and coherence. The z-scores were averaged thus enabling pre and post comparisons (80). The Metawin 2.1 software was also used to calculate Hedge’s d effect sizes (81). Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: In this section, identify the statistical analyses that will be used for each RQ, specifically. Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: This is interesting. You should be able to do all of your quantitative analyses with SPSS. And, please see Laerd.com for SO much information about statistical tests and analyses. This site will become a best friend for a quantitative researcher! And, please don’t be afraid of statistics. . qualitative studies are very time-intensive as all interviews must be transcribed and themes identified and interpreted. This takes considerably longer than statistical analyses||pp. 79-81|
|Evaluation (Maximum 250-500 words) Comment by Dr. Julie Nelson: Ian, really strong understanding of this study. Nice analysis and identification of the 10SP.
1. The major gap within the literature is provided right up front. Wigton states that the peer-reviewed literature on ZNF is scant; nevertheless, after providing an historical overview of EEG, QEEG, and NF and the theoretical foundations thereof, she breaks the literature review into several sections, including QNF, 4ZNF, and 19ZNF. Wigton first lists her search sources, including her own personal library, as well as several research databases. She further identifies nontraditional sources of ZNF material within conference posters and presentations. Of particular note within the literature review, Wigton describes the terminology and processes of ZNF that will be used within the study, a particularly relevant strategy given its technical nature.
2. The independent variable was the 19ZNF and the dependent variables were the clinical outcomes based on the IVA, DSMD, and BRIEF assessments, as well as the z-scores from the QEEG data. As the dependent variable, all subjects participated in the 19ZNF treatment, which was expected to have an effect on the post assessment results of either the IVA, DSMD, or BRIEF assessments.
3. The lack of quantitative studies on the effects of 19ZNF indicated a need for this type of research, particularly on the need for numerical indications of the efficacy of the 19ZNF treatment. Significantly, qualitative studies on the technique were deemed insufficient by the leading NF professional organizations, according to Wigton.
4. This particular design used a quasi-experimental approach based on a retrospective, one-group pre-test/post-test process. As a retrospective study, this was appropriate, as it helped eliminate bias in subject selection and specific research participation. As a quasi-experimental study, it seemed to involve two of the three qualities of a true research study, control and manipulation (the third quality being randomization) (Hart, 2007) through the pre-test/post-test process. However, the study was controlled only in the sense that participants were limited; as a one-group study there was no distinction between experimental and control group.
5. Data collection was simple enough based on previous work with the 19ZNF instrument used within the private clinic. Pre-test/post-test methodology was essential for this retrospective study to ensure that the data could be compared and the effectiveness of the 19ZNF could be measured. Ethical considerations and steps to ensure privacy were effective for this study as these steps ensured a separation of personally identifiable information with test results, thus protecting privacy while maintaining data integrity.
6. In this case, the problem was a lack of quantitative data on the efficacy of the 19ZNF treatment method. Thus, Wigton was able to fill a much-needed gap by providing these results. The purpose statement was essentially a declaration of intent to provide the quantitative results needed to fill that gap.
Hart, M. (2007). Design. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 22(1), 22.
© 2013. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.