Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple Choice Questions


1. How many abductions of children, by one of their parents, occur in the

United States annually?

A. 2,500

B. 33,400

C. 203,900

D. 654,200


2. What is NOT a quality that forensic psychologists have identified as

something that will increase the risk of abduction?

A. Parents with strong ties to their children

B. Parents who view the other parent as incompetent

C. Parents with a distrust of the courts

D. Parents with a history of other criminal activity


3. If a psychologist who acted as a couple’s marriage counselor advised

the judge on custody when the couple divorced, they would have

A. served as a mediator.

B. a dual relationship.

C. broken the law.

D. served the best interests of the child.




4. What is NOT an advantage of mediation?

A. Psychologists are more often consulted.

B. The proceedings are usually confidential.

C. Participants are more satisfied with the process.

D. Cases are settled more quickly.


5. There is a move toward more compulsory mediation of custody disputes

mainly because it:

A. results in better adjustment of children post-divorce.

B. reduces the workload of the courts.

C. decreases the association between parental and child problems.

D. allows the mediator to advocate for the less powerful spouse.


6. When a psychologist gives a recommendation on the best custody arrangement,

they are acting as a:

A. mediator.

B. fact witness.

C. court-appointed evaluator.

D. advocate.








7. Distinguish between system variables and estimator variables. Which can be controlled by the criminal justice system?














8. Do witnesses and victims make mistakes in identification of perpetrators? How often?










9.What are some procedural errors that police make in questioning eyewitnesses?










10. Has the Supreme Court taken a position on the use of lineups by the police? What is it?















Multiple Choice: (2 points)


11. The number of arrests or prosecutions relative to the overall crime rate is

also known as the:

A. success ratio.

B. clearance rate.

C. sociocriminal balance.

D. adjusted crime index.


12. What did Justice Brennan consider the strongest piece of evidence in a case?

A. Eyewitness testimony

B. A confession

C. Expert witness testimony

D. DNA evidence


13. A procedure used by the police in the Paul Ingram case was:

A. searching his house without a warrant.

B. not issuing him his Miranda rights prior to interrogation.

C. not allowing him to have his lawyer present during his interrogation.

D. using interrogation techniques that effectively brainwashed him.






14. People assume that most confessions are:

A. false.

B. obtained only with great difficulty.

C. true.

D. freely given by the guilty party.


15. Which of the following is NOT a type of false confession as discussed in Chapter


A. Plea-bargaining

B. Voluntary

C. Coerced-compliant

D. Coerced-internalized


16. Which of the following is NOT a motivation for coerced-compliant

confessions as discussed in Chapter 11?

A. To escape further interrogation

B. To gain a promised benefit

C. Plea bargaining for previous crimes

D. To avoid punishment







17. Which of the following was listed in Chapter 12 as a reason why “trial

consultants” may be better thought of as “ litigation consultants”?

A. Because of lack of certification, the term ‘trial consultant’ may be misleading to the public.

B. The increasing addition of social scientists to the field has expanded duties beyond simply consulting at the trial.

C. Attorneys may be reluctant to hire ‘trial consultants’ because they feel that they do not need help with the actual trial portion of the case.

D. People see the name ‘trial consultant’ and attach negative connotations.


18. How many states currently license or certify trial consultants?

A. 0

B. 8

C. 23

D. All 50


19. When did “scientific jury selection” begin?

A. 1940s

B. 1960s

C. 1970s

D. 1980s


20. The majority of cases in which trial consultants are used are

A. criminal trials.

B. capital trials.

C. civil trials.

D. international trials.

21. What does a peremptory challenge do?

A. Strike testimony from the record

B. Change the venue of a trial

C. Make evidence inadmissible

D. Dismiss a prospective juror


22. What was the outcome when four New York City police officers were charged

with killing Amadou Diallo?

A. The police officers were found not guilty.

B. The police officers were found guilty of first-degree murder.

C. The officers were found guilty of second-degree murder.

D. The officers were found guilty of manslaughter.


23. ______ is considered by social scientists to be an attitude while ________

is considered to be a behavior.

A. Prejudice; discrimination

B. Prejudice; stereotyping

C. Discrimination; prejudice

D. Discrimination; stereotyping


24. What is NOT true of a prejudicial attitude?

A. It is always illogical.

B. It is always negative.

C. It is always unjustified.

D. It is always toward a group as a whole.

25. A belief that “Blacks are getting too demanding in their push for equal rights”


A. adverse impact.

B. disparate impact.

C. disparate treatment.

D. modern racism.*


26. If a person is homophobic and does not request a transfer when assigned a gay client

they are displaying:

A. discrimination and prejudice.

B. discrimination, but not prejudice.

C. prejudice, but not discrimination.

D. neither prejudice, nor discrimination.


27. The term sexual harassment was apparently first coined in what year?

A. 1954

B. 1968

C. 1974

D. 1992







28. In using the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to address sexual

harassment, a person:

A. is entitled to only back pay.

B. may be embroiled in lengthy court proceedings.

C. may have their award amount reduced by a judge.

D. goes through the criminal, rather than civil justice system.


29. The Supreme Court ruled that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:

A. did not apply to sexual harassment of any kind.

B. did apply to same-sex encounters.

C. did not apply to same-sex encounters.

D. did not apply to male victims of sexual harassment.


30. In large-scale surveys of the prevalence of sexual harassment, about what percent

of female employees report that they have been the targets of unwanted sexual


A. 10%

B. 20%

C. 30%

D. 40%






31. According to Chapter 13, one out of every _____ female faculty members at

United States colleges and universities have reported experiencing sexual


A. 3

B. 5

C. 7

D. 9


32. In Panetti v. Quarterman (2007), the Supreme Court ruled that:

A. Panetti was incompetent and could not be executed.

B. death row inmates could still litigate their competency after an execution date has been set.

C. Panetti was mentally ill, but was still competent and could be executed.

D. mentally ill defendants cannot represent themselves and so Panetti should get a new trial.


33. Since the death penalty was reinstated in the United States in 1976,

approximately how many people have been executed?

A. 90

B. 300

C. 700

D. 1100






34. In which country did 90% of executions take place in 2004?

A. China

B. Iran

C. Russia

D. The United States


35. The APA unanimously passed a resolution calling for the suspension of the

penalty largely due to:

A. problems with the implementation of the death penalty.

B. the unethical behavior of prosecutors.

C. values of the importance of individual life and justice.

D. the number of mentally ill inmates on death row.


36. A capital case is one:

A. that has received a great deal of publicity.

B. involving the theft of capital assets.

C. in which the death penalty is sought.

D. that occurred in the nation’s capital.


37. What would be the correct chronological of roles for a forensic psychologist

in a potential death penalty case?

A. Change of venue survey, Assessing competency to stand trial, Mitigation assessment, Jury selection

B. Change of venue survey, Mitigation assessment, Jury selection, Assessing competency to stand trial

C. Assessing competency to stand trial, Change of venue survey, Jury selection, Mitigation assessment

D. Assessing competency to stand trial, Jury selection, Mitigation assessment, Change of venue survey

38. What is NOT one of the ways psychologists may bring psychological knowledge

to the attention of legislative bodies as discussed in the text?

A. Providing expert testimony at legislative hearings

B. Lobbying

C. Publishing articles in political science journals

D. Placing psychologists on legislative staffs


39. The use of psychologists as expert witnesses in legislative issues is:

A. more common at the state rather than national level.

B. more common at the national rather than the state level.

C. equally common in the state and national levels.

D. not allowed at either the state or national level.


40. With regard to the American Psychological Association, which of the following

court decisions reflects a guild issue?

A. Challenging the acceptability of insurance companies denying coverage when clients’ treatment was by a psychologist instead of a psychiatrist

B. Challenging the admissibility of evidence based on a polygraph examination

C. Suggesting the lower limit on jury size

D. Advocating the right of a sexually abused child to testify via closed circuit television rather than in the courtroom.






41. The first amicus brief that was composed largely of empirical findings rather than

past cases and statutes was:

A. Plessy v. Ferguson.

B. Muller v. Oregon.

C. Dred Scott v. Sandford.

D. Brown v. Board of Education.


42. The Supreme Court decision that established the principle of “separate

but equal” accommodations for different races was:

A. Plessy v. Ferguson.

B. Muller v. Oregon.

C. Dred Scott v. Sandford.

D. Brown v. Board of Education.


43. A review of psychological research indicates that, in contrast to larger juries, smaller juries:

A. are more likely to encourage dissent.

B. decrease the likelihood of a conviction

C. are less likely to fail to reach a verdict.

D. are less representative of majority viewpoints


43. Claude Ballew was convicted of what charge?

A. Armed robbery

B. Sexual abuse

C. Murder

D. Obscenity


44. What was the outcome of Claude Ballew’s appeal to the Supreme Court?


A. His conviction was overturned, because too may potential jurors were dismissed.

B. His conviction was overturned, because the jury was too small.

C. His conviction was overturned, because he was denied the right to confront his accuser.

D. His conviction was upheld.


45. When did the American Psychological Association, as an organization,

submit its first amicus brief to the Supreme Court?

A. In 1954, on school desegregation

B. In 1962, on expert witnesses

C. In 1979, on jury research

D. In 1986, on homosexuality


46. Which case dealt with the right of psychologists as expert witnesses to state their

professional opinions?

A. Bowers v. Hardwick

B. Maryland v. Craig

C. Jenkins v. United States

D. Ballew v. Georgia





47. A brief intended to be an objective summary of research is known as a:

A. science-translation brief.

B. Brandeis brief.

C. advocacy brief.

D. fact witness brief.


48. The APA has sponsored at least one amicus brief on which of the following topics?

A. The death penalty and death-qualified jurors

B. Abortion rights of minors

C. Children’s rights as witnesses in court

D. All of these choices


49. A brief that takes a position on some legal or public policy issues is a:

A. science-translation brief.

B. Brandeis brief.

C. advocacy brief.

D. fact witness brief.

50. The Supreme Court’s decision clearly disagreed with the conclusions of APA’s brief in which of the following?

A. Bowers v. Hardwick

B. Maryland v. Craig

C. Jenkins v. United States

D. Ballew v. Georgia

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