Non-normative life influences

LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT: A Psychological Perspective By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French

 

 

 

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Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective

By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French (Published 2017)

 

This Open Education Resource (OER) textbook was funded by a grant from the College of Lake County Foundation and supported by the Business and Social Sciences Division.

This textbook can be found at: http://dept.clcillinois.edu/psy/LifespanDevelopment.pdf

Publication is under the following license:

 

 

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 unported license to view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development

Chapter 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth

Chapter 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood

Chapter 4: Early Childhood

Chapter 5: Middle and Late Childhood

Chapter 6: Adolescence

Chapter 7: Emerging and Early Adulthood

Chapter 8: Middle Adulthood

Chapter 9: Late Adulthood

Chapter 10: Death and Dying

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development …………………………………………………………………………… 8

Lifespan Perspective ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 Conceptions of Age ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12 Periods of Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13 Issues in Lifespan Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15 Historical Theories on Development …………………………………………………………………………………………. 16 Contemporary Theories on Development …………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Descriptive Research …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23 Correlational Research ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25 Experimental Research ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27 Research Involving Time-Spans ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28 Conducting Ethical Research …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32

Chapter 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth…………………………………………………………………… 34

Heredity …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 Genotypes and Phenotypes …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35 Genetic Disorders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 Chromosomal Abnormalities …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38 Behavioral Genetics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39 Prenatal Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42 The Germinal Period …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42 The Embryonic Period …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43 The Fetal Period …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44 Prenatal Brain Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45 Teratogens ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46 Maternal Factors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52 Prenatal Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56 Complications of Pregnancy …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58 Preparation for Childbirth ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59 Stages of Birth for Vaginal Delivery …………………………………………………………………………………………. 59 Assessing the Neonate …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62 Problems of the Newborn ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63

Chapter 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 68

The Brain in the First Two Years ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 69 Infant Sleep ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71 From Reflexes to Voluntary Movements ……………………………………………………………………………………. 73 Motor Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75 Sensory Capacities ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76 Nutrition ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78 Global Considerations and Malnutrition …………………………………………………………………………………….. 80 Piaget and the Sensorimotor Stage ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 81 Infant Memory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84 Language …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85 Components of Language ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86 Language Developmental Progression ………………………………………………………………………………………. 87

 

 

 

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Theories of Language Development …………………………………………………………………………………….. 89 Temperament ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93 Infant Emotions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95 Forming Attachments ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97 Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 98 Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation Technique …………………………………………………………………… 98 Erikson: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt ………………………………………………………………………………… 102 Measuring Infant Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 103 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103

Chapter 4: Early Childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110

Brain Maturation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111 Motor Skill Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112 Toilet Training …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114 Sleep ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115 Sexual Development in Early Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………….. 116 Nutritional Concerns …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development……………………………………………………………… 118 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development ………………………………………………………… 121 Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122 Attention ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122 Memory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 123 Neo-Piagetians …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 125 Children’s Understanding of the World ……………………………………………………………………………………. 126 Language Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129 Preschool …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129 Autism Spectrum Disorder ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131 Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 133 Self-Concept and Self-Esteem ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134 Self-Control ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134 Gender …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 135 Sibling Relationships …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 139 Play ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141 Children and the Media ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143 Child Care ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143 Child Abuse………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146

Chapter 5: Middle and Late Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………. 153

Sports ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154 Childhood Obesity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157 Concrete Operational Thought ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159 Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161 Language Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163 Communication Disorders ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164 Theories of Intelligence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 165 Measuring Intelligence: Standardization and the Intelligence Quotient ……………………………………………… 169 Extremes of Intelligence: Intellectual Disability and Giftedness ……………………………………………………… 170 Education …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173 Cultural Differences in the Classroom ……………………………………………………………………………………… 173

 

 

 

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Children with Disabilities …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176 Children with Disabilities: Legislation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 180 Erikson: Industry vs. Inferiority ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 182 Self-Understanding …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 182 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development ………………………………………………………………………………… 183 Friends and Peers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185 Bullying …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 187 Family Life……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193

Chapter 6: Adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202

Growth in Adolescence………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 202 Sexual Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203 Adolescent Brain ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 206 Adolescent Sleep ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208 Adolescent Sexual Activity …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 209 Eating Disorders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 210 Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development ………………………………………………………. 212 Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 214 High School Dropouts …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215 Teenagers and Working ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 216 Teenage Drivers …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 217 Self-concept and Self-esteem in Adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………. 218 Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion……………………………………………………………………………………….. 218 Parents and Teens: Autonomy and Attachment ………………………………………………………………………….. 222 Peers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222 Romantic Relationships ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225

Chapter 7: Emerging and Early Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………….. 230

Emerging Adulthood Defined ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230 Cultural Variations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 232 When Does Adulthood Begin? ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 233 Young Adults Living Arrangements ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 234 The Physiological Peak………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 235 Obesity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 236 A Healthy, But Risky Time …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 238 Gender …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240 Sexuality ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 242 Beyond Formal Operational Thought: Postformal Thought …………………………………………………………… 249 Education …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 250 Career Development and Employment …………………………………………………………………………………….. 251 Sexism …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 253 Temperament and Personality in Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………… 254 Attachment in Young Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 257 Relationships with Parents and Siblings …………………………………………………………………………………… 260 Erikson: Intimacy vs. Isolation ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 260 Factors influencing Attraction ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 261 Friendships ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 262 Love ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 262

 

 

 

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Adult Lifestyles …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 264 Intimate Partner Abuse ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 271 Parenthood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 272 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 275

Chapter 8: Middle Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 285

Physical Changes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 286 Sensory Changes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 287 Health Concerns ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 289 Digestive Issues …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 296 Sleep ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 297 Exercise, Nutrition, and Weight ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 299 Climacteric ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 302 The Climacteric and Sexuality ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 305 Brain Functioning ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 306 Crystalized versus Fluid Intelligence……………………………………………………………………………………….. 307 Middle Adults Returning to Education …………………………………………………………………………………….. 309 Gaining Expertise: The Novice and the Expert…………………………………………………………………………… 310 Work at Midlife …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 311 Leisure …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 314 Midlife Crisis? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 316 Stress ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 317 Erikson: Generativity vs Stagnation ………………………………………………………………………………………… 321 Midlife Relationships ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 323 Middle Adult Lifestyles ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 326 Friendships ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 332 Women in Midlife ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 334 Religion and Spirituality ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 334 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 336

Chapter 9: Late Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 349

Late Adulthood in America …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 349 The “Graying” of the World ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 350 Life Expectancy vs Lifespan …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 351 Gender Differences in Life Expectancy ……………………………………………………………………………………. 353 Age Categories in Late Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 355 Theories of Aging ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 358 Physical Changes of Aging …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 361 Sensory Changes in Late Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 363 Nutrition ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 367 Chronic Conditions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 368 Brain Functioning ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 372 Sexuality ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 374 How Does Aging Affect Information Processing? ………………………………………………………………………. 376 Memory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 376 Attention and Problem Solving………………………………………………………………………………………………. 378 Intelligence and Wisdom ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 380 Neurocognitive Disorders …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 380 Work and Retirement ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 383 Ageism ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 386 Living Arrangements …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 387

 

 

 

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Erikson: Integrity vs. Despair ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 389 Generativity in Late Adulthood ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 390 Social Networks in Late Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………………… 391 Late Adult Lifestyles …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 393 Gay and Lesbian Elders ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 395 Elder Abuse ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 396 Substance Abuse and the Elderly ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 397 Successful Aging ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 399 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 399

Chapter 10: Death and Dying …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 411

Most Common Causes of Death …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 413 Where do People Die? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 416 Developmental Perceptions of Death and Death Anxiety ……………………………………………………………… 416 Curative, Palliative, and Hospice Care …………………………………………………………………………………….. 418 Family Caregivers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 419 Advanced Directives …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 420 Cultural Differences in End-of-Life Decisions …………………………………………………………………………… 421 Euthanasia ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 422 Religious Practices after Death ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 423 Grief, Bereavement, and Mourning …………………………………………………………………………………………. 424 Models of Grief …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 426 Grief: Loss of Children and Parents ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 428 Mourning …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 430 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 431

OER Attribution Information ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 434

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development Developmental Psychology, also known as Human Development or Lifespan Development, is the scientific study of ways in which people change, as well as stay the same, from conception to death. You will no doubt discover in the course of studying that the field examines change across a broad range of topics. These include physical and other psychophysiological processes, cognition, language, and psychosocial development, including the impact of family and peers. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence and more recently, aging and the entire life span. Previously, the message was once you are 25, your development is essentially completed. Our academic knowledge of the lifespan has changed and although there is still less research on adulthood than on childhood, adulthood is gaining increasing attention. This is particularly true now that the large cohort known as the baby boomers are beginning to enter late adulthood. The assumption that early childhood experiences dictate our future is also being called into question. Rather, we have come to appreciate that growth and change continues throughout life and experience continues to have an impact on who we are and how we relate to others. We now recognize that adulthood is a dynamic period of life marked by continued cognitive, social, and psychological development. You will also discover that developmental psychologists investigate key questions, such as whether children are qualitatively different from adults or simply lack the experience that adults draw upon. Other issues that they deal with is the question of whether development occurs through the gradual accumulation of knowledge or through shifts from one stage of thinking to another; or if children are born with innate knowledge or figure things out through experience; and whether development is driven by the social context or something inside each child. From the above explanation you may be thinking already that developmental psychology is related to other applied fields. You are very right. The field informs several applied fields in psychology, including, educational psychology, psychopathology, and forensic developmental psychology. It also complements several other basic research fields in psychology including social psychology, cognitive psychology, and comparative psychology. Lastly, it draws from the theories and research of several scientific fields including biology, sociology, health care, nutrition, and anthropology.

Figure 1.1

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Lifespan Perspective

Paul Baltes identified several underlying principles of the lifespan perspective (Baltes, 1987; Baltes, Lindenberger, & Staudinger, 2006). Lifespan theorists believe that development is life- long, and change is apparent across the lifespan. No single age period is more crucial, characterizes, or dominates human development. Consequently, the term lifespan development will be used throughout the textbook.

Development is multidirectional. Humans change in many directions. We may show gains in some areas of development, while showing losses in other areas. Every change, whether it is finishing high school, getting married, or becoming a parent, entails both growth and loss.

Development is multidimensional. We change across three general domains/dimensions; physical, cognitive, and psychosocial. The physical domain includes changes in height and weight, sensory capabilities, the nervous system, as well as the propensity for disease and illness. The cognitive domain encompasses the changes in intelligence, wisdom, perception, problem- solving, memory, and language. The psychosocial domain focuses on changes in emotion, self- perception and interpersonal relationships with families, peers, and friends. All three domains influence each other. It is also important to note that a change in one domain may cascade and prompt changes in the other domains. For instance, an infant who has started to crawl or walk will encounter more objects and people, thus fostering developmental change in the child’s understanding of the physical and social world.

Development is multidisciplinary. As mentioned at the start of the chapter, human development is such a vast topic of study that it requires the theories, research methods, and knowledge base of many academic disciplines.

Development is characterized by plasticity. Plasticity is all about our ability to change and that many of our characteristics are malleable. For instance, plasticity is illustrated in the brain’s ability to learning from experience and how it can recover from injury.

Development is multicontextual. Development occurs in many contexts. Baltes (1987) identified three specific contextual influences.

 Normative age-graded influences: An age-grade is a specific age group, such as toddler, adolescent, or senior. Humans in a specific age-grade share particular experiences and developmental changes.

Learning Objectives: Lifespan Perspective

 Explain the lifespan perspective and its assumptions about development.  Differentiate periods of human development.  Explain the issues underlying lifespan development  Identify the historical and contemporary theories impacting lifespan development

 

 

 

 

 

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 Normative history-graded influences: The time period in which you are born (see Table 1.1) shapes your experiences. A cohort is a group of people who are born at roughly the same period in a particular society. These people travel through life often experiencing similar circumstances.

 Non-normative life influences: Despite sharing an age and history with our peers, each of us also has unique experiences that may shape our development. A child who loses his/her parent at a young age has experienced a life event that is not typical of the age group.

Another context that influences our lives is our social standing, socioeconomic status, or social class. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a way to identify families and households based on their shared levels of education, income, and occupation. While there is certainly individual variation, members of a social class tend to share similar lifestyles, patterns of consumption, parenting styles, stressors, religious preferences, and other aspects of daily life. All of us born into a class system are socially located and may move up or down depending on a

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