# Please take a look at the project description in the PDF EVERY SINGLE thing is described in detail in this PDF “Project Description”. If you have any further doubts about the process, take a look at

### We can write your essays! Let our essay writing experts help you get that A in your next essay. Place your order today, and you will enjoy it. No plagiarism.

Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

Please take a look at the project description in the PDF EVERY SINGLE thing is described in detail in this PDF “Project Description”.

If you have any further doubts about the process, take a look at the book PDF ALL of the project processes are explained step by step with exact details for further explanation and it is only 19 pages of illustrations.

Please, do not take the assignment if you don’t have deep knowledge of Gears, shafts, and Bearings Design

Please take a look at the project description in the PDF EVERY SINGLE thing is described in detail in this PDF “Project Description”. If you have any further doubts about the process, take a look at

Chapter Outline 18–1 Design Sequence for Power Transmission 927 18–2 Power and Torque Requirements 928 18–3 Gear Specification 928 18–4 Shaft Layout 935 18–5 Force Analysis 937 18–6 Shaft Material Selection 937 18–7 Shaft Design for Stress 938 18–8 Shaft Design for Deflection 938 18–9 Bearing Selection 939 18–10 Key and Retaining Ring Selection 940 18–11 Final Analysis 943 Power Transmission Case Study 18 925 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 925 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 925 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles/204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles 926 Mechanical Engineering Design Transmission of power from a source, such as an engine or motor, through a machine to an output actuation is one of the most common machine tasks. An efficient means of trans- mitting power is through rotary motion of a shaft that is supported by bearings. G ears, belt pulleys, or chain sprockets may be incorporated to provide for torque and speed changes between shafts. Most shafts are cylindrical (solid or hollow), and include stepped diame- ters with shoulders to accommodate the positioning and support of bearin gs, gears, etc. The design of a system to transmit power requires attention to the design and selec- tion of individual components (gears, bearings, shaft, etc.). However, as is often the case in design, these components are not independent. For example, in order to design the shaft for stress and deflection, it is necessary to know the applied forces. If the forces are transmitted through gears, it is necessary to know the gear specifications in order to determine the forces that will be transmitted to the shaft. But stock ge ars come with certain bore sizes, requiring knowledge of the necessary shaft diameter. It is no surprise that the design process is interdependent and iterative, but where should a designer start? The nature of machine design textbooks is to focus on each component separately. This chapter will focus on an overview of a power transmission system design, demonstrat- ing how to incorporate the details of each component into an overall design process. A typical two-stage gear reduction such as shown in Fig. 18–1 will be assumed for this discus- sion. The design sequence is similar for variations of this particular transmission system. The following outline will help clarify a logical design sequence. Discussion of how each part of the outline affects the overall design process will be given in sequence in this chapter. Details on the specifics for designing and selecting major components are covered in separate chapters, particularly Chap. 7 on shaft design, Chap. 1 1 on bearing selection, and Chaps. 13 and 14 on gear specification. A complete case study is presented as a specific vehicle to demonstrate the process. Figure 18–1 A compound reverted gear train. 3 2 5 4 Y 2 5 3 4 CASE STUDY PART 1 PROBLEM SPECIFICATION Section 1–18, p. 34, presents the background for this case study involving a speed reducer. A two-stage, compound reverted gear train such as shown in Fig. 18–1 will be designed. In this chapter, the design of the intermediate shaft and its components is presented, taking into account the other shafts as necessary. bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 926 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 926 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles Power Transmission Case Study 927 18–1 Design Sequence for Power Transmission There is not a precise sequence of steps for any design process. By nature, design is an iterative process in which it is necessary to make some tentative choices, and to build a skeleton of a design, and to determine which parts of the design are criti cal. However, much time can be saved by understanding the dependencies between the parts of the problem, allowing the designer to know what parts will be affected by any given change. In this section, only an outline is presented, with a short explanation of each step. Further details will be discussed in the following sections. • Power and torque requirements. Power considerations should be addressed first, as this will determine the overall sizing needs for the entire system. Any necessary speed or torque ratio from input to output must be determined before add ressing gear/pulley sizing. • Gear specification. Necessary gear ratios and torque transmission issues can now be addressed with selection of appropriate gears. Note that a full force an alysis of the shafts is not yet needed, as only the transmitted loads are required to specify the gears. • Shaft layout. The general layout of the shaft, including axial location of gears and bearings must now be specified. Decisions on how to transmit the torque from the gears to the shaft need to be made (keys, splines, etc.), as well as how to hold gears and bearings in place (retaining rings, press fits, nuts, etc.). However, it is not necessary at this point to size these elements, since their standard siz es allow esti- mation of stress-concentration factors. • Force analysis. Once the gear/pulley diameters are known, and the axial locations of the gears and bearings are known, the free-body, shear force, and bending moment diagrams for the shafts can be produced. Forces at the bearings can be determined. • Shaft material selection. Since fatigue design depends so heavily on the material choice, it is usually easier to make a reasonable material selection first, then check for satisfactory results. • Shaft design for stress ( fatigue and static). At this point, a stress design of the shaft should look very similar to a typical design problem from the shaft chapter (Chap. 7 ). Shear force and bending moment diagrams are known, critical locations can be predicted, approximate stress concentrations can be used, and estimates for shaft diameters can be determined. A subset of the pertinent design specifications that will be needed for this part of the design are given here. Power to be delivered: 20 hp Input speed: 1750 rpm Output speed: 82–88 rev/min Usually low shock levels, occasional moderate shock Input and output shafts extend 4 in outside gearbox Maximum gearbox size: 14-in 3 14-in base, 22-in height Output shaft and input shaft in-line Gear and bearing life . 12 000 hours; infinite shaft life bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 927 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 927 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles 928 Mechanical Engineering Design • Shaft design for deflection. Since deflection analysis is dependent on the entire shaft geometry, it is saved until this point. With all shaft geometry now estimated, the critical deflections at the bearing and gear locations can be checked by analysis. • Bearing selection. Specific bearings from a catalog may now be chosen to match the estimated shaft diameters. The diameters can be adjusted slightly as necessary to match the catalog specifications. • Key and retaining ring selection. With shaft diameters settling in to stable values, appropriate keys and retaining rings can be specified in standard sizes. This should make little change in the overall design if reasonable stress-concentration factors were assumed in previous steps. • Final analysis. Once everything has been specified, iterated, and adjusted as neces- sary for any specific part of the task, a complete analysis from start to finish will provide a final check and specific safety factors for the actual system. 18–2 Power and Torque Requirements Power transmission systems will typically be specified by a power capacity, for example, a 40-horsepower gearbox. This rating specifies the combination of torque and speed that the unit can endure. Remember that, in the ideal case, power in equals power out, so that we can refer to the power being the same throughout the system. In reality, there are small losses due to factors like friction in the bearings and gears. In many transmission systems, the losses in the rolling bearings will be negligible. Gears have a reasonably high efficiency, with about 1 to 2 percent power loss in a pair of meshed gears. Thus, in the double-reduction gearbox in Fig. 18–1, with two pairs of meshed gears the output power is likely to be about 2 to 4 percent less than the input power. Since this is a small loss, it is common to speak of simply the power of the system, rather than input power and output power. Flat belts and timing belts have efficiencies typically in the mid to upper 90 percent range. V belts and worm gears have efficiencies that may dip much lower, requiring a distinction between the necessary input power to obtain a desired output power. Torque, on the other hand, is typically not constant throughout a transmi ssion system. Remember that power equals the product of torque and speed. Since power in 5 power out, we know that for a gear train H 5T ivi5T ovo (18–1) With a constant power, a gear ratio to decrease the angular velocity will simulta- neously increase torque. The gear ratio, or train value, for the gear train is e 5v oyv i5 T iyT o (18–2) A typical power transmission design problem will specify the desired power capacity, along with either the input and output angular velocities, or the input and output torques. There will usually be a tolerance specified for the output values. After the specific gears are specified, the actual output values can be determined. 18–3 Gear Specification With the gear train value known, the next step is to determine appropriate gears. As a rough guideline, a train value of up to 10 to 1 can be obtained with one pair of gears. Greater ratios can be obtained by compounding additional pairs of gears (See Sec. 13–13, p. 690). The compound reverted gear train in Fig. 18–1 can obtain a train value of up to 100 to 1. bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 928 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 928 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles Power Transmission Case Study 929 Since numbers of teeth on gears must be integers, it is best to design with teeth num- bers rather than diameters. See Ex. 13–3, 13–4, and 13–5, pp. 692–694, for de tails on designing appropriate numbers of teeth to satisfy the gear train value and any necessary geometry condition, such as in-line condition of input and output shaft. Care should be taken at this point to find the best combination of teeth numbers to minimize the overall package size. If the train value only needs to be approximate, use this flexibility to try dif- ferent options of tooth numbers to minimize the package size. A difference of one tooth on the smallest gear can result in a significant increase in size of the overall package. If designing for large production quantities, gears can be purchased in large enough quantities that it is not necessary to worry about preferred sizes. For small lot production, consideration should be given to the tradeoffs between smaller gearbox size and extra cost for odd gear sizes that are difficult to purchase off the shelf. If stock gears are to be used, their availability in prescribed numbers of teeth with anticipated diametral pit ch should be checked at this time. If necessary, iterate the design for numbers of teeth that are available. CASE STUDY PART 2 SPEED, TORQUE, AND GEAR RATIOS Continue the case study by determining appropriate tooth counts to reduce the input speed of vi 5 1750 rev/min to an output speed within the range 82 rev/min , v o , 88 rev/min Once final tooth counts are specified, determine values of (a) Speeds for the intermediate and output shafts (b) Torques for the input, intermediate and output shafts, to transmit 20 hp. Solution Use the notation for gear numbers from Fig. 18–1. Choose mean value for initial design, v 5 5 85 rev/min. e 5 v 5 v25 85 1750 51 20.59 Eq. (18–2) For a compound reverted geartrain, e 5 1 20.59 5N 2 N3 N4 N5 Eq. (13–30), p. 691 For smallest package size, let both stages be the same reduction. Also, by making the two stages identical, the in-line condition on the input and output shaft will automatically be satisfied. N2 N35 N 4 N55 B 1 20.59 5 1 4.54 For this ratio, the minimum number of teeth from Eq. (13–11), p. 678, is 16. N25 N 4516 teeth N354.54( N 2)5 72.64 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 929 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 929 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles 930 Mechanical Engineering Design If a maximum size for the gearbox has been specified in the problem specifica- tion, a minimum diametral pitch (maximum tooth size) can be estimated at this point by writing an expression for the gearbox size in terms of gear diameters, and converting to numbers of teeth through the diametral pitch. For example, from Fig. 18–1, the overall height of the gearbox is Y 5 d 31d 2y2 1 d 5y2 1 2 yP 1 clearances 1wall thicknesses where the 2y P term accounts for the addendum height of the teeth on gears 3 and 5 tha t extend beyond the pitch diameters. Substituting d i 5 N iy P gives Y 5 N 3yP 1 N 2y(2 P) 1 N 5y(2 P) 1 2 yP 1 clearances 1wall thicknesses Solving this for P, we find P 5(N 31 N 2y2 1 N 5y2 1 2) y( Y 2 clearances 2wall thicknesses ) (18–3) Try rounding down and check if v5 is within limits. v55 a16 72 b a 1672 b ( 1750) 586.42 rev/min Acceptable Proceed with N25N 4516 teeth N35N 5572 teeth e5 a16 72 b a1672 b 5 1 20.25 v55 86.42 rev/min v35v 45a16 72 b ( 1750) 5388.9 rev/min To determine the torques, return to the power relationship, H5 T 2v25T 5v5 Eq. (18–1) T25 H yv 25 a 20 hp 1750 rev/min b a550 ft-lbf/s hp b a 1 rev 2 p rad b a60 s min b T25 60.0 lbf ?ft T35 T 2 v2 v3560.0 1750 388.9 5 270 lbf ?ft T55 T 2 v2 v5560.0 1750 86.42 5 1215 lbf ?ft bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 930 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 930 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles Power Transmission Case Study 931 This is the minimum value that can be used for diametral pitch, and therefore the max- imum tooth size, to stay within the overall gearbox constraint. It should be rounded up to the next standard diametral pitch, which reduces the maximum tooth size. The AGMA approach, as described in Chap. 14, for both bending and contact stress should be applied next to determine suitable gear parameters. The primary design parameters to be specified by the designer include material, diametral pitch, and face width. A recommended procedure is to start with an estimated diametral pitch. This allows determination of gear diameters ( d 5 NyP), pitch-line velocities [Eq. (13–34), p. 699], and transmitted loads [Eq. (13–35) or ( 13–36), p. 699]. Typical spur gears are available with face widths from 3 to 5 times the circular pitch p. Using an average of 4, a first estimate can be made for face width F 5 4 p 5 4 pyP . Alternatively, the designer can simply perform a quick search of on-line gear catalog s to find available face widths for the diametral pitch and number of teeth. Next, the AGMA equations in Chap. 14 can be used to determine appropriate mate- rial choices to provide desired safety factors. It is generally most efficient to attempt to analyze the most critical gear first, as it will determine the limiting values of diametral pitch and material strength. Usually, the critical gear will be the smaller gear, on the high-torque (low-speed) end of the gearbox. If the required material strengths are too high, such that they are either too expensive or not available, iteration with a smaller diametral pitch (larger tooth) will help. Of course, this will increase the overall gearbox size. Often the excessive stress will be in one of the small gears. Rather than increase the tooth size for all gears, it is so metimes better to reconsider the design of tooth counts, shifting more of the gear ratio t o the pair of gears with less stress, and less ratio to the pair of gears with the excessive stress. This will allow the offending gear to have more teeth and therefore larger diameter, decreasing its stress. If contact stress turns out to be more limiting than bending stress, con sider gear materials that have been heat treated or case hardened to increase the surface strength. Adjustments can be made to the diametral pitch if necessary to achieve a good balance of size, material, and cost. If the stresses are all much lower than the material strengths, a larger diametral pitch is in order, which will reduce the size of the gears and the gearbox. Everything up to this point should be iterated until acceptable results ar e obtained, as this portion of the design process can usually be accomplished indepe ndently from the next stages of the process. The designer should be satisfied with the gear selection before proceeding to the shaft. Selection of specific gears from catalogs at this point will be helpful in later stages, particularly in knowing overall width, bore size, recom- mended shoulder support, and maximum fillet radius. CASE STUDY PART 3 GEAR SPECIFICATION Continue the case study by specifying appropriate gears, including pitch diameter, diametral pitch, face width, and material. Achieve safety factors of at least 1.2 for wear and bending. Solution Estimate the minimum diametral pitch for overall gearbox height 5 22 in. bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 931 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 931 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles 932 Mechanical Engineering DesignFrom Eq. (18–3) and Fig. 18–1, Pmin5aN31N221N5212b(Y2clearances2wall thickness )Allow 1.5 in for clearances and wall thickness: Pmin5a721162172212b(2221.5)55.76 teeth/inStart with P 5 6 teeth/in d25d45N2yP516y652.67 in d35d5572y6512.0 inShaft speeds were previously determined to be v251750 rev/min v35v45388.9 rev/min v5586.4 rev/minGet pitch-line velocities and transmitted loads for later use. V235pd2v2125p(2.67) (1750)1251223 ft /min Eq. (13–34), p. 699 V455pd5v5125271.5 ft /min Wt23533 000 HV23533 000 a201223b5540.0 lbf Eq. (13–35), p. 699 Wt45533 000 HV45533 000 a20271.5b52431 lbfStart with gear 4, since it is the smallest gear, transmitting the largest load. It will likely be critical. Start with wear by contact stress, since it is often the limiting factor.Gear 4 Wear I5cos 20° sin 20°2(1) a4.54.511b50.1315 Eq. (14–23), p. 747 For Kv, assume Qv 5 7. B 5 0.731, A 5 65.1 Eq. (14–29), p. 748 Kv5a65.111271.565.1b0.73151.18 Eq. (14–27), p. 748Face width F is typically from 3 to 5 times circular pitch. Try F54 apPb54 ap6b52.09 in.Since gear specifications are readily available on the Internet, we might as well check for commonly available face widths. On www.globalspec.com, entering P 5 6 teeth/in and d 5 2.67 in, stock spur gears from several sources have face widths of 1.5 in or 2.0 in. These are also available for the meshing gear 5 with d 5 12 in. Choose F 5 2.0 in.For Km, Cpf 5 0.0624 Eq. (14–32), p. 752bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 932 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 932 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles/204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles Power Transmission Case Study 933 Cmc51 uncrowned teeth Eq. (14–31), p. 752 Cpm51 straddle-mounted Eq. (14–33), p. 752 Cma50.15 commercial enclosed unit Eq. (14–34), p. 752 Ce51 Eq. (14–35), p. 752 Km51.21 Eq. (14–30), p. 751 Cp52300 Table 14–8, p. 749 Ko5Ks5Cf51 sc52300B2431(1.18) (1.21)2.67(2) (0.1315)5161 700 psi Eq. (14–16), p. 738Get factors for sc,all. For life factor ZN, get number of cycles for specified life of 12 000 h. L45( 12 000 h) a60 minhb a389 revminb52.83108 rev ZN50.9 Fig. 14–15, p. 755 KR5KT5CH51For a design factor of 1.2, sc,all5ScZNySH5sc Eq. (14–18), p. 742 Sc5SHscZN51.2( 161 700)0.95215 600 psiFrom Table 14–6, p. 743, this strength is achievable with Grade 2 carburized and hardened with Sc 5 225 000 psi. To find the achieved factor of safety, nc 5 sc,allysc with SH 5 1. The factor of safety for wear of gear 4 is nc5sc,allsc5ScZNsc5225 000(0.9)161 70051.25Gear 4 Bending J50.27 Fig. 14–6, p. 745 KB51Everything else is the same as before. s5WtKv PdF KmJ5( 2431) ( 1.18) a62b a1.210.27b Eq. (14–15), p. 738 s538 570 psi YN50.9 Fig. 14–14, p. 755bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 933 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 933 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles/204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles 934 Mechanical Engineering Design Using Grade 2 carburized and hardened, same as chosen for wear, find St 5 65 000 psi (Table 14–3, p. 740). sall5 S tYN558 500 psi The factor of safety for bending of gear 4 is n5 s all s 558 500 38 570 5 1.52 Gear 5 Bending and Wear Everything is the same as for gear 4, except J, YN, and ZN. J 5 0.41 Fig. 14–6, p. 745 L55 ( 12 000h) ( 60 min/h) ( 86.4 rev/min) 56.2 310 7 rev YN50.97 Fig. 14–14, p. 755 ZN5 1.0 Fig. 14–15, p. 755 sc5 2300 B2431(1.18) (1.21) 2.67(2) (0.1315) 5 161 700 psi s5 ( 2431) ( 1.18) a6 2 b a 1.21 0.41 b 5 25 400 psi Choose Grade 2 carburized and hardened, the same as gear 4 nc5 s c ,all sc 5 225 000 161 700 5 1.39 n5 s all s 565 000( 0.97) 25 400 5 2.48 Gear 2 Wear Gears 2 and 3 are evaluated similarly. Only selected results are shown. Kv51.37 Try F 5 1.5 in, since the loading is less on gears 2 and 3. Km5 1.19 All other factors are the same as those for gear 4. sc52300 B(539.7) (1.37) (1.19) 2.67(1.5) (0.1315) 5 94 000 psi L25 ( 12 000 h) ( 60 min/h) ( 1750 rev/min) 51.26 310 9 rev ZN50.8 Try grade 1 flame-hardened, Sc 5 170 000 psi nc5 s c ,all sc 5 170 000(0.8) 94 000 5 1.40 Gear 2 Bending J5 0.27 YN50.88 s5 539.7(1.37) (6) (1.19) (1.5) (0.27) 5 13 040 psi bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 934 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 934 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles Power Transmission Case Study 935 18–4 Shaft Layout The general layout of the shafts, including axial location of gears and bearings, must now be specified in order to perform a free-body force analysis and to obtain shear force and bending moment diagrams. If there is no existing design to use as a starter, then the determination of the shaft layout may have many solutions. Section 7–3, p. 353, discusses the issues involved in shaft layout. In this section the focus will be on how the decisions relate to the overall process. A free-body force analysis can be performed without knowing shaft diameters, but can not be performed without knowing axial distances between gears and bearings. It is extremely important to keep axial distances small. Even small forces can create large bending moments if the moment arms are large. Also, recall that beam deflection equations typically include length terms raised to the third power. It is worth examining the entirety of the gearbox at this time, to determine what factors drive the length of the shaft and the placement of the components. A rough sketch, such as shown in Fig. 18–2, is sufficient for this purpose. n5 s all s 545 000( 0.88) 13 040 5 3.04 Gear 3 Wear and Bending J5 0.41 YN50.9 ZN50.9 sc52300 B(539.7) (1.37) (1.19) 2.67(1.5) (0.1315) 5 94 000 psi s5 539.7(1.37) (6) (1.19) 1.5(0.41) 5 8584 psi Try Grade 1 steel, through-hardened to 300 HB. From Fig. 14–2, p. 739, St 5 36 000 psi and from Fig. 14–5, p. 742, Sc 5 126 000 psi. nc5 126 000(0.9) 94 000 5 1.21 n5 s all s 536 000(0.9) 8584 5 3.77 In summary, the resulting gear specifications are: All gears, P 5 6 teeth/in Gear 2, Grade 1 flame-hardened, S c 5 170 000 psi and S t 5 45 000 psi d 2 5 2.67 in, face width 5 1.5 in Gear 3, Grade 1 through-hardened to 300 H B, S c 5 126 000 psi and S t 5 36 000 psi d 3 5 12.0 in, face width 5 1.5 in Gear 4, Grade 2 carburized and hardened, S c 5 225 000 psi and S t 5 65 000 psi d 4 5 2.67 in, face width 5 2.0 in Gear 5, Grade 2 carburized and hardened, S c 5 225 000 psi and S t 5 65 000 psi d 5 5 12.0 in, face width 5 2.0 in bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 935 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 935 21/11/13 9:44 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles 936 Mechanical Engineering Design CASE STUDY PART 4 SHAFT LAYOUT Continue the case study by preparing a sketch of the gearbox sufficient to determine the axial dimensions. In particular, estimate the overall length, and the distance between the gears of the intermediate shaft, in order to fit with the mounting requirements of the other shafts. Solution Fig. 18–2 shows the rough sketch. It includes all three shafts, with consideration of how the bearings are to mount in the case. The gear widths are known at this point. Bearing widths are guessed, allowing a little more space for larger bearings on the intermediate shaft where bending moments will be greater. Small changes in bearing widths will have minimal effect on the force analysis, since the location of the ground reaction force will change very little. The 4-in distance between the two gears on the countershaft is dictated by the requirements of the input and output shafts, including the space for the case to mount the bearings. Small allotments are given for the retaining rings, and for space behind the bearings. Adding it all up gives the intermediate shaft length as 11.5 in. Figure 18–2 Sketch for shaft layout. Dimensions are in inches. 1 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 4 2 Gear 2 Gear 3 Gear 5 Gear 4 1 3 4 11 2 3 4 1 1 4 1 4 11 2 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 936 21/11/13 9:45 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 936 21/11/13 9:45 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles Power Transmission Case Study 937 Wider face widths on gears require more shaft length. Originally, gears with hubs were considered for this design to allow the use of set screws instead of high-stress- concentration retaining rings. However, the extra hub lengths added several inches to the shaft lengths and the gearbox housing. Several points are worth noting in the layout in Fig. 18–2. The gears and bearings are positioned against shoulders, with retaining rings to hold them in p osition. While it is desirable to place gears near the bearings, a little extra space is provided between them to accommodate any housing that extends behind the bearing, and to allow for a bearing puller to have space to access the back of the bearing. The extra change in diameter between the bearings and the gears allows the shoulder height for the bearing and the bore size for the gear to be different. This diameter can have loose tolerances and a large fillet radius. Each bearing is restrained axially on its shaft, but only one bearing on each shaft is axially fixed in the housing, allowing for slight axial thermal expansion of the shafts. 18–5 Force Analysis Once the gear diameters are known, and the axial locations of the components are set, the free-body diagrams and shear force and bending moment diagrams for the shafts can be produced. With the known transmitted loads, determine the radial and axial loads transmitted through the gears (see Secs. 13–14 through 1 3–17, pp. 697–706). From summation of forces and moments on each shaft, ground reaction forc es at the bearings can be determined. For shafts with gears and pulleys, the forces and moments will usually have components in two planes along the shaft. For rotating shafts, usu- ally only the resultant magnitude is needed, so force components at bear ings are summed as vectors. Shear force and bending moment diagrams are usually obtained in two planes, then summed as vectors at any point of interest. A torque diagram should also be generated to clearly visualize the transfer of torque fro m an input component, through the shaft, and to an output component. See the beginning of Ex. 7–2, p. 366, for the force analysis portion of the cas e study for the intermediate shaft. The bending moment is largest at gear 4. This is predictable, since gear 4 is smaller, and must transmit the same torque that entered the shaft through the much larger gear 3. While the force analysis is not difficult to perform manually, if beam software is to be used for the deflection analysis, it will necessarily calculate re action forces, along with shear force and bending moment diagrams in the process of cal culating deflections. The designer can enter guessed values for diameters into the software at this point, just to get the force information, and later enter actual di ameters to the same model to determine deflections. 18–6 Shaft Material Selection A trial material for the shaft can be selected at any point before the stress design of the shaft, and can be modified as necessary during the stress design process. Section 7–2, p. 352, provides details for decisions regarding material selection. For the case study, an inexpensive steel, 1020 CD, is initially selected. After the stress analysis, a slightly higher strength 1050 CD is chosen to reduce the critical stresses withou t further increasing the shaft diameters. bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 937 22/11/13 5:54 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 937 22/11/13 5:54 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles 938 Mechanical Engineering Design 18–7 Shaft Design for Stress The critical shaft diameters are to be determined by stress analysis at critical locations. Section 7–4, p. 358, provides a detailed examination of the issues involved in shaft design for stress. Since the bending moment is highest at gear 4, potentially critical stre ss points are at its shoulder, keyway, and retaining ring groove. It turns out that the keyway is the critical location. It seems that shoulders often get the most attent ion. This example demonstrates the danger of neglecting other stress concentration sources, such as keyways. The material choice was changed in the course of this phase, choosing to pay for a higher strength to limit the shaft diameter to 2 in. If the shaft were t o get much bigger, the small gear would not be able to provide an adequate bore size. If it becomes neces- sary to increase the shaft diameter any more, the gearing specification will need to be redesigned. 18–8 Shaft Design for Deflection Section 7–5, p. 371, provides a detailed discussion of deflection considerations for shafts. Typically, a deflection problem in a shaft will not cause catastrophic failure of the shaft, but will lead to excess noise and vibration, and premature failure of the gears or bearings. CASE STUDY PART 5 DESIGN FOR STRESS Proceed with the next phase of the case study design, in which appropriate diam- eters for each section of the shaft are estimated, based on providing sufficient fatigue and static stress capacity for infinite life of the shaft, with minimum safety factor of 1.5. Solution The solution to this phase of the design is presented in Ex. 7–2, p. 366. CASE STUDY PART 6 DEFLECTION CHECK Proceed with the next phase of the case study by checking that deflections and slopes at the gears and bearings on the intermediate shaft are within acceptable ranges. Solution The solution to this phase of the design is presented in Ex. 7–3, p. 372. bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 938 21/11/13 9:45 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 938 21/11/13 9:45 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles Power Transmission Case Study 939 It turns out that in this problem all the deflections are within recomme nded limits for bearings and gears. This is not always the case, and it would be a poor choice to neglect the deflection analysis. In a first iteration of this case study, with longer shafts due to using gears with hubs, the deflections were more critical than th e stresses. 18–9 Bearing Selection Bearing selection is straightforward now that the bearing reaction forces and the approximate bore diameters are known. See Chap. 11 for general details on bearing selection. Rolling-contact bearings are available with a wide range of load capacities and dimensions, so it is usually not a problem to find a suitable bearing that is close to the estimated bore diameter and width. CASE STUDY PART 7 BEARING SELECTION Continue the case study by selecting appropriate bearings for the intermediate shaft, with a reliability of 99 percent. The problem specifies a design life of 12 000 h. The intermediate shaft speed is 389 rev/min. The estimated bore size is 1 in, and the estimated bearing width is 1 in. Solution From the free-body diagram (see Ex. 7–2, p. 366), RAz5115.0 lbf RAy5356.7 lbf RA5375 lbf RBz51776.0 lbf RBy5725.3 lbf RB51918 lbf At the shaft speed of 389 rev/min, the design life of 12 000 h correlates to a bearing life of LD 5 (12 000 h)(60 min/h)(389 rev/min) 5 2.8 3 10 8 rev. Start with bearing B since it has the higher loads and will likely raise any lurking problems. From Eq. (11–10), p. 570, assuming a ball bearing with a 5 3 and L 5 2.8 3 10 8 rev, FRB 5( 1) 1918 c 2.8 310 8y10 6 0.02 1(4.459 20.02) (1 20.99) 1 y1.483 d 1 y3 5 20 820 lbf A check on the Internet for available bearings (www.globalspec.com is one good starting place) shows that this load is relatively high for a ball bearing with bore size in the neighborhood of 1 in. Try a cylindrical roller bearing. Recalculating F RB with the exponent a 5 10y3 for roller bearings, we obtain FRB 5 16 400 lbf Cylindrical roller bearings are available from several sources in this range. A spe- cific one is chosen from SKF, a common supplier of bearings, with the following specifications: Cylindrical roller bearing at right end of shaft C 5 18 658 lbf, ID 5 1.181 1 in, OD 5 2.834 6 in, W 5 1.063 in Shoulder diameter range 5 1.45 in to 1.53 in, and maximum fillet radius 5 0.043 in bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 939 22/11/13 5:54 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 939 22/11/13 5:54 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles 940 Mechanical Engineering Design At this point, the actual bearing dimensions can be checked against the initial assumptions. For bearing B the bore diameter of 1.1811 in is slightly larger than the original 1.0 in. There is no reason for this to be a problem as long as there is room for the shoulder diameter. The original estimate for shoulder support diameters was 1.4 in. As long as this diameter is less than 1.625 in, the next step of the shaft, there should not be any problem. In the case study, the recommended shoulder support diameters are within the acceptable range. The original estimates for stress concentra- tion at the bearing shoulder assumed a fillet radius such that ryd 5 0.02. The actual bearings selected have ratios of 0.036 and 0.080. This allows the fillet radii to be increased from the original design, decreasing the stress-concentration factors. The bearing widths are close to the original estimates. Slight adjustmen ts should be made to the shaft dimensions to match the bearings. No redesign shoul d be necessary. 18–10 Key and Retaining Ring Selection The sizing and selection of keys is discussed in Sec. 7–7, p. 380, with an example in Ex. 7–6, p. 386. The cross-sectional size of the key will be dictated to correlate with the shaft size (see Tables 7–6 and 7–8, pp. 383, 385), and must certainly match an integral keyway in the gear bore. The design decision includes the length of the key, and if necessary an upgrade in material choice. The key could fail by shearing across the key, or by crushing due to bearing stress. For a square key, it turns out that checking only the crushing failure is adequate, since the shear- ing failure will be less critical according to the distortion energy failure theory, and equal according to the maximum shear stress failure theory. Check Ex. 7–6 to investigate why. For bearing A, again assuming a ball bearing, FRA 5375 c 2.8 310 8y10 6 0.02 14.439(1 20.99) 1 y1.483 d 1 y3 5 4070 lbf A specific ball bearing is chosen from the SKF Internet catalog. Deep-groove ball bearing at left end of shaft C 5 5058 lbf, ID 5 1.000 in, OD 5 2.500 in, W 5 0.75 in Shoulder diameter range 5 1.3 in to 1.4 in, and maximum fillet radius 5 0.08 in CASE STUDY PART 8 KEY DESIGN Continue the case study by specifying appropriate keys for the two gears on the intermediate shaft to provide a factor of safety of 2. The gears are to be custom bored and keyed to the required specifications. Previously obtained information includes the following: Transmitted torque: T 5 3240 lbf-in Bore diameters: d3 5 d 4 5 1.625 in Gear hub lengths: l3 5 1.5 in, l4 5 2.0 in bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 940 21/11/13 9:45 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 940 21/11/13 9:45 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles Power Transmission Case Study 941 Retaining ring selection is simply a matter of checking catalog specifications. The retaining rings are listed for nominal shaft diameter, and are available with different axial load capacities. Once selected, the designer should make note of the depth of the groove, the width of the groove, and the fillet radius in the bottom of the groove. The catalog specification for the retaining ring also includes an edge margin, which is the minimum distance to the next smaller diameter change. This is to ensure support for the axial load carried by the ring. It is important to check stress-concentration factors with actual dimensions, as these factors can be rather large. In the case study, a specific retaining ring was already chosen during the stress analysis (see Ex. 7–2, p. 366) at the potentially critical location of gear 4. The other locations for retaining rings were not at points of high stress, so it is not necessary to worry about the stress concentration due to the retain- ing rings in these locations. Specific retaining rings should be selected at this time to complete the dimensional specifications of the shaft. For the case study, retaining rings specifications are entered into globalspec, and specific rings are selected from Truarc Co., with the following specifications: Both Gears Left Bearing Right Bearing Nominal Shaft diameter 1.625 in 1.000 in 1.181 in Groove diameter 1.529 ; 0.005 in 0.940 ; 0.004 in 1.118 ; 0.004 in Groove width 0.068 10.004 20.000 in 0.046 10.004 20.000 in 0.046 10.004 20.000 in Nominal groove depth 0.048 in 0.030 in 0.035 in Max groove fillet radius 0.010 in 0.010 in 0.010 in Minimum edge margin 0.144 in 0.105 in 0.105 in Allowable axial thrust 11 850 lbf 6000 lbf 7000 lbf These are within the estimates used for the initial shaft layout, and sh ould not require any redesign. The final shaft should be updated with these dimensions. Solution From Table 7–6, p. 383, for a shaft diameter of 1.625 in, choose a square key with side dimension t5 38 in. Choose 1020 CD material, with Sy 5 57 kpsi. The force on the key at the surface of the shaft is F 5 T r 5 3240 1.625 y2 5 3988 lbf Checking for failure by crushing, we find the area of one-half the face of the key is used. n5 S y s 5 S y F y( tl y2) Solving for l gives l 5 2 Fn tSy5 2( 3988) ( 2) ( 0.375) ( 57000) 5 0.75 in Since both gears have the same bore diameter and transmit the same torque, the same key specification can be used for both. bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 941 21/11/13 9:45 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 941 21/11/13 9:45 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles 942 Figure 18–3 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 942 21/11/13 9:45 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 942 21/11/13 9:45 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles Power Transmission Case Study 943 18–11 Final Analysis At this point in the design, everything seems to check out. Final details include deter- mining dimensions and tolerances for appropriate fits with the gears and bearings. See Sec. 7–8, p. 387, for details on obtaining specific fits. Any small changes from the nominal diameters already specified will have negligible effect on the stress and deflec- tion analysis. However, for manufacturing and assembly purposes, the designer should not overlook the tolerance specification. Improper fits can lead to failure of the design. Lack of attention to tolerance specification can make the part unfunctional or overly expensive to manufacture. Further insight on tolerance specification is given in Sec. 1–14, p. 27. The final drawing for the intermediate shaft is shown in Fig. 18–3. This drawing shows the important dimensions and dimensional tolerances in a form that is generally considered satisfactory for small production quantities where direct attention is given to manufacturing methods. A more robust method of part specification that also addresses the allowed variations from perfect form (e.g., straightness or concentricity) is k nown as Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing and is introduced in Chap. 20. For documentation purposes, and for a check on the design work, the design process should conclude with a complete analysis of the final design. Remember that analysis is much more straightforward than design, so the investment of time for the final analysis will be relatively small. PROBLEMS 18–1 For the case study problem, design the input shaft, including complete sp ecification of the gear, bearings, key, retaining rings, and shaft. 18–2 For the case study problem, design the output shaft, including complete s pecification of the gear, bearings, key, retaining rings, and shaft. 18–3 For the case study problem, use helical gears and design the intermediate shaft. Compare your results with the spur gear design presented in this chapter. 18–4 Perform a final analysis for the resulting design of the intermediate shaft of the case study problem presented in this chapter. Produce a final drawing with dimensions and tolerances for the shaft. Does the final design satisfy all the requirements? Identify the critical aspects of the design with the lowest factor of safety. 18–5 For the case study problem, change the power requirement to 40 horsepower. Design the inter- mediate shaft, including complete specification of the gears, bearings, keys, retaining rings, and shaft. bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 943 22/11/13 5:54 PM user-f-w-198 bud98209_ch18_925-943.indd Page 943 22/11/13 5:54 PM user-f-w-198 /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles /204/MH01996/bud98209_disk1of1/0073398209/bud98209_pagefiles

### Everyone needs a little help with academic work from time to time. Hire the best essay writing professionals working for us today!

Get a 15% discount for your first order

Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper