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Please write a 2 page seminar paper about these four articles and don’t forget to site your sources. Do not copy from the internet this is strictly about your insights on the articles, kind of like a
1 . R ic e T heory : W hy E aste rn C ult u re s A re M ore C oopera tiv e N PR .O RG M ay 8 , 2 014 T e am work n eeded: S ucce ssfu lly g ro w in g r ic e r e q uir e s v illa ges to w ork to geth er to b uild ir rig atio n s yste m s a nd g et th e c ro p p la nte d. B y c o m pa ris o n, w heat is e asie r to g ro w . A sk A m eric a ns to d escrib e th em se lv e s, a n d c h ance s a re y o u’l l g et a dje ctiv e s lik e ” e nerg etic ,” ” fr ie ndly ” o r ” h ard -w ork in g.” I n J a pan, th e r e sp onse s w ould lik e ly b e m uch d if f e re n t. ” D ependent o n o th ers ” a nd ” c o nsid era te ” m ig ht p op u p, s tu die s h ave fo und. P sych olo gis ts h ave k n ow n fo r a lo ng tim e th at p eople in E ast A sia th in k d if f e re n tly , o n a ve ra ge, t h an d o th ose in th e U .S . a nd E uro pe. E aste rn e rs in deed te nd to b e m ore c o opera tiv e a nd i n tu it iv e , w hile W este rn ers le an to w ard in div id ualis m a nd a naly tic a l th in kin g. N ow p sych olo gis ts h ave e vid ence th at o ur a nce sto rs p la nte d s o m e o f th ese c u lt u ra l d if f e re nce s h undre ds o f y e ars a go w hen th ey c h ose w hic h g ra in s to s o w . ” W e c a ll it th e r ic e th eory ,” s a ys T hom as T a lh elm , a g ra duate s tu dent a t t h e U niv e rs it y o f V ir g in ia w ho le d th e s tu dy. ” R ic e is a r e ally s p ecia l k in d o f fa rm in g.” T he id ea is s im ple . G ro w in g r ic e te nds t o fo ste r c u lt u re s th at a re m ore c o opera tiv e a nd i n te rc o nnecte d, T a lh elm a nd h is c o lle agu es e xp la in T hurs d a y in th e jo urn a l S cie nce .W hy? B eca use fa rm in g r ic e p addie s r e quir e s c o lla bora tio n w it h y o ur n eig hbors , T a lh elm te lls T he S alt . S elf – re lia nce is d angero us. ” F am ilie s h ave to flo od a nd d ra in th eir fie ld a t th e s a m e tim e,” h e s a ys. ” S o th ere a re p unis h m ents fo r b ein g to o in div id ualis tic . If y o u flo od to o e arly , y o u w ould r e a lly p is s o ff y o ur n eig hbors .” R ic e p addie s a ls o r e quir e ir r ig atio n s yste m s. ” T hat c o st fa lls o n th e v illa ge, n ot ju st o ne fa m ily ,” h e s a ys. ” S o v illa ges h ave t o fig ure o ut a w ay to c o ord in ate a nd p ay fo r a nd m ain ta in th is s yste m . It m ake s p eople c o o pera te .” W heat, o n th e o th er h and, a s w ell a s b arle y a nd c o rn , d oesn ‘t g enera lly r e q uir e ir rig atio n — o r m uch c o lla bora tio n. O ne fa m ily a lo ne c a n p la nt, g ro w a nd h arv e st a fie ld o f w heat, w it h out th e h elp o f o th ers . S o w heat fa rm in g fo ste rs c u lt u re s w it h m ore in div id ualis m , in dependence a nd in nova tio n, T a lh elm a nd h is c o lle agues s a y. S elf – re li a nce a nd in nova tio n a re r e w ard e d. S olit u de a nd s e lf – re lia nce : F arm in g c o rn a nd w heat h is to ric a lly h as r e q uir e d le ss la bor a nd d ependency o n o th ers in a c o m munit y . O f c o urs e , p ro posin g th is r ic e th eory is e a sy. D em on str a tin g th at fa rm in g s ty le s a ctu ally d riv e c u lt u ra l c h anges is m uch h ard er. T o s ta rt to d o th at, T a lh elm a nd h is c o lle agues tu rn ed to a c o untr y th at h is to ric a lly fa rm ed b oth w heat a nd r ic e : C hin a. F or g enera tio ns, th e p eople in th e n orth ern h alf o f C hin a h ave g enera lly g ro w n w heat, w hile th ose in th e s o uth ern h alf h ave f o cu se d o n r ic e . A nd g uess w hic h p eople p eople te nd to th in k m ore lik e W este rn ers ? T he n orth ern ers w hose a nce sto rs fa rm ed w he at. T a lh elm a nd h is c o lle agues g ave s im ple p sych olo gic a l te sts to a bout a th ousa nd c o lle ge s tu dents fr o m b oth p arts o f C hin a. S tu de nts in th e n orth a nsw ere d th e q uestio ns m ore lik e A m eric a ns a nd E uro peans: T hey te nded to b e m ore in div id ualis tic a nd u se m ore a naly tic a l t h in kin g. T hose in th e s o uth a lig ned m ore w it h th e c u lt u re s in J a pan a nd K ore a . O ne te st, fo r in sta nce , a ske d a p ers o n to d ra w h is s o cia l n etw ork , w it h c ir c le s r e p re se ntin g h im se lf a nd h is fr ie nds. A m eric a ns te nd to d ra w th em se lv e s b ig ger th an th eir fr ie nds, a bout a q uarte r o f a n in ch b ig ger. B ut J a panese d ra w th em se lv e s, o n a ve ra g e, a b it s m alle r th an th eir f r ie nds, a p re vio us s tu dy fo und. ” A m eric a is N o. 1 w hen it c o m es to s e lf – in fla tio n,” T e lh elm s a ys. ” W e d ra w o urs e lv e s m uch l a rg er th an fr ie nds. W e ta ke th at a s a m easu re o f s e lf – in fla tio n.” W hen T a lh elm g ave th e s a m e s o cia l n etw ork te st to C hin ese s tu dents , th e a m ou nt o f s e lf – in fla tio n d epended o n w here th e s tu d ents liv e d. P eo ple fr o m w heat- g ro w in g r e gio ns d re w t h em se lv e s s lig htly la rg er th an th eir fr ie nd s, o n a ve ra g e. S tu dents fr o m th e r ic e -g ro w in g r e gio ns d re w th em se lv e s s m alle r th an th eir fr ie nd s. L ik e W este rn e rs , p eople w hose a nce sto rs fa rm ed w heat te nd to in fla te th eir o w n im porta nce m ore . O f c o urs e , th e r ic e th eory is n ‘t th e o nly h yp o th esis fo r w hy E aste rn e rs a nd W este rn ers te nd to t h in k d if f e re ntly .S om e s cie ntis ts h ave c h a lk e d u p th ese d if f e re n ce s to w ealt h a nd m odern iz a tio n: A s s o cie tie s g et r ic h er a nd m ore e duca te d, p eople b eco m e m ore in div id ualis tic a nd a naly tic a l. B ut th at id ea d oesn ‘t e xp la in th e c o opera tiv e c u lt u re s in J a pan, H ong K on g a nd S outh K ore a — w hic h , in s o m e w ays, a re r ic h er th an th e U .S . A nd th e s tu die s s u pportin g th is m odern iz a tio n id ea, s o fa r, h ave n’t b een a s s tr o n g a s th e c u rre nt s tu dy in S cie nce , s a ys p sych olo gis t J o se ph H enric h , o f th e U niv e rs it y o f B rit is h C olu m bia , w ho w asn ‘t in vo lv e d in th e w ork . ” T he [r ic e th eory ] id ea h as b een o ut th ere fo r a w hile ,” h e te lls T he S alt . ” T his is r e ally th e fir s t s tu dy th at I k n o w o f w it h s yste m atic d ata s u pportin g it . O th er th eorie s m ostly s te m fr o m v e ry s m all s tu die s a cro ss n atio nalit ie s. T he q ualit y o f th is s tu dy is b ette r th an t h ose .” B ut th ere ‘s s till m uch m ore w ork to b e d on e b efo re th e h yp oth esis is a cce pte d, H ein ric h s a ys. ” T his is o nly th e fir s t s tu dy a nd w e w ould w ant m uch m ore e vid ence b efo re w e d ecla re v ic to ry .” A nd th e r ic e th eory d oesn ‘t e xp la in a ll th e p sych olo gic a l d if f e re n ce s o bse rv e d in th e s tu dents f r o m th e n orth a nd s o uth o f C hin a. ” L ots o f o th er th in gs in th e e nvir o nm ent [b esid es r ic e fa rm in g] c a n c re a te th e s a m e p atte rn ,” H enric h s a ys. ” T hese th in gs c a n la st fo r g enera tio ns. T hey b eco m e th e r ig ht w ay to d o th in gs. A nd it ta ke s a w hile to g et a w ay fr o m th em .” 2 .B efo re E uro pean C hris tia ns F orc e d G ender R ole s, N ativ e A m eric a ns A ckn ow le dged F iv e G enders B y P ears o n M cK in ney – J u ne 1 9, 2 016 w ww.b ip artis a nre port.c o m I t w asn ’t u ntil E uro peans to ok o ve r N orth A m eric a th at n ativ e s a dopte d th e id eas o f g ender r o le s. F or N ativ e A m eric a ns, th ere w as n o s e t o f r u le s th at m en a nd w om en h ad to a bid e b y in o rd er to b e c o nsid ere d a “ n orm al” m em be r o f th eir tr ib e. I n fa ct, p eople w ho h ad b oth fe m ale a nd m ale c h ara cte ris tic s w ere v ie w ed a s g if te d b y n atu re , a nd th ere fo re , a ble to s e e b oth s id es o f e ve ry th in g. A cco rd in g to In dia n C ountr y T o day, a ll n ativ e c o m munit ie s a ckn ow le dged th e fo llo w in g g ender r o le s: “ F em ale , m ale , T w o S pir it fe m ale , T w o S pir it m ale a nd T ra nsg endere d.” “ E ach tr ib e h as th eir o w n s p ecif ic te rm , b u t th ere w as a n eed fo r a u niv e rs a l te rm th at th e g enera l p opula tio n c o uld u nders ta nd. T he N ava jo r e fe r to T w o S pir it s a s N ádle ehí ( o ne w ho is t r a nsfo rm ed), a m ong th e L ako ta is W in kté ( in dic a tiv e o f a m ale w ho h as a c o m pu ls io n to b ehave a s a fe m ale ), N iiz h M anid oow ag ( tw o s p ir it ) in O jib w e, H em an eh ( h a lf m an, h alf w om an) i n C heye nne, to n am e a fe w . A s th e p urp o se o f “ T w o S pir it ” is to b e u se d a s a u niv e rs a l te rm in t h e E nglis h la nguage, it is n ot a lw ays tr a n sla ta ble w it h th e s a m e m ea nin g in N ativ e la nguages. F or e xa m ple , in th e Ir o quois C hero ke e la n guage, th ere is n o w ay to tr a n sla te th e te rm , b ut th e C hero ke e d o h ave g ender v a ria nce te rm s fo r ‘w om en w ho fe el lik e m en ’ a nd v ic e v e rs a .” T he “ T w o S pir it ” c u lt u re o f N ativ e A m eric a ns w as o ne o f th e fir s t th in gs th at E uro p eans w ork e d t o d estr o y a nd c o ve r u p. A cco rd in g to p eo ple lik e A m eric a n a rtis t G eorg e C atlin , th e T w o S pir it t r a dit io n h ad to b e e ra dic a te d b efo re it c o uld g o in to h is to ry b ooks. C atlin s a id th e t r a dit io n:“ ..M ust b e e xtin guis h ed b efo re it c a n b e m ore fu lly r e co rd e d.” H ow eve r, it w asn ’t o nly w hit e E uro peans th at tr ie d to h id e a ny tr a ce o f n ativ e g ender b endin g. A cco rd in g to In dia n C ountr y T o day, “ S panis h C ath olic m on ks d estr o ye d m ost o f th e A zte c c o dic e s to e ra dic a te tr a dit io nal N ativ e b elie fs a nd h is to ry , in clu din g th ose th at to ld o f th e T w o S pir it tr a dit io n.” T hro ughout th ese e ff o rts b y C hris tia ns, N ativ e A m eric a ns w ere fo rc e d to d re ss a nd a ct a cco rd in g to n ew ly d esig nate d g ender r o le s. O ne o f th e m ost c e le bra te d T w o S pir it s in r e co rd e d h is to ry w as a L ako ta w arrio r a ptly n am ed F in ds T hem A nd K ills T hem . O sh -T is ch w as b orn a m ale a nd m arrie d a fe m ale , b ut a dorn ed h im se lf in w om en’s c lo th in g a nd liv e d d aily lif e a s a fe m ale . O n J u ne 1 7 1 876, F in ds T hem A nd K ills T hem g ain ed h is r e puta tio n w hen h e r e scu ed a fe llo w tr ib esm an d urin g th e B attle o f R ose bud C re ek. A n a ct o f fe arle ss b ra ve ry . B elo w is a p ic tu re o f O sh -T is ch a nd h is w if e o n th e r ig ht. O sh -T is ch ( L eft) a nd h is w if e ( R ig ht) I n N ativ e A m eric a n c u lt u re s, p eople w ere v a lu ed fo r th eir c o ntr ib utio ns to th e tr ib e, r a th er th an f o r m ascu lin it y o r fe m in in it y . P are nts d id n ot a ssig n g ender r o le s to c h ild re n e it h er, a nd e ve n c h ild re n’s c lo th in g te nded to b e g ender n e utr a l. T here w ere n o id eas o r id eals a bout h ow a p ers o n s h ould lo ve ; it w as s im ply a n atu ra l a ct th at o ccu rre d w it h out ju dgem en t o r h esit a tio n. W it h out a n egativ e s tig m a a tta ch ed to b ein g a T w o S pir it , th ere w ere n o in ner-tr ib al in cid ents o f r e ta lia tio n o r v io le nce to w ard th e c h ose n p eople s im ply d ue to th e fa ct th at in div id uals id entif ie d a s th e o pposit e o r b oth g enders . “ T he T w o S pir it p eople in p re -c o nta ct N ativ e A m eric a w ere h ig hly r e ve re d a nd fa m ilie s th at i n clu ded th em w ere c o nsid ere d lu cky. In d ia ns b elie ve d th at a p ers o n w ho w as a ble to s e e th e w orld th ro ugh th e e ye s o f b oth g enders a t th e s a m e tim e w as a g if t fr o m T he C re ato r. ” R elig io us in flu ence s s o on b ro ught s e rio u s p re ju dic e a gain st “ g e nder d iv e rs it y ,” a nd s o th is f o rc e d o nce o penly a lt e rn ativ e o r a ndro gyn ous p eople to o ne o f tw o c h oic e s. T hey c o uld e it h er l iv e in h id in g, a nd in fe ar o f b ein g fo und o ut, o r th ey c o uld e nd th eir liv e s. M an y o f w hom d id ju st t h at. I m agin e a w orld w here p eople a llo w ed o th ers to liv e fr e e ly a s th e p eople n atu re in te nded th em t o b e..w it h out h arm ..w it h out p ers e cu tio n..w it h out s h am e. Im ag in e a w orld w here w e a re tr u ly f r e e. 3 . W hy th ese In dia n m ille nnia ls a re c h oo sin g a rra nged m arria ge B y M oni B asu , C NN M arc h 2 4, 2 018 I n m any w ays, N ain a is n o d if f e re nt th an m il le nnia l w om en I k n ow in th e U nit e d S ta te s. S he is 2 0 a nd fin is h in g a d egre e in p sych olo gy a t a D elh i u niv e rs it y . S he w ears Z ara s kin ny je ans a nd H &M T -s h ir ts a nd h angs o ut w it h h er g ir lf r ie nds a t o ne o f D elh i’s m yria d A m eric a n-s ty le m alls a nd c o ff e e s h ops. S he lis te ns to R &B a nd E D M o n A pple M usic ; h er fa vo rit e s o ng is ” S he W ill B e L ove d” b y M aro on 5 . C able T V is s o y e ste rd a y; s h e s tr e a m s s h ow s a nd m ovie s o n N etflix . B ut w hen it c o m es to m arria ge, N ain a’s v ie w s m ig ht s h ock A m eric a n w om en h er a ge. S he r e fle cts a w ay o f th in kin g lo ng e ngra in ed in th e c u lt u re o f m y h om ela nd: Y our p are nts k n ow b est. S ex & L ove A ro und th e W orld ” I b elie ve v e ry s tr o ngly in th e id ea o f a n a rra nged m arria ge,” s h e te lls m e o ve r th e p hone o ne r e ce nt e ve nin g. ” N ot th at a lo ve m arria ge is n ot r ig ht. B ut it h as b een in stille d in m e to h ave a n a rra nged m arria ge.” N ain a s p oke to m e fr a nkly a nd a ske d m e n ot to u se h er la st n am e. In h er fa m il y c ir c le s, it ‘s b est t o n ot to p ublic ly a ir o pin io ns o n s u ch in tim ate to pic s. A rra nged m arria ges c o m mon in In dia I k n ew th at m any y o ung u rb an w om en in In dia fe lt th e s a m e w ay a s N ain a. I s p oke w it h a fe w o n m y m ost r e ce nt tr ip th ere a nd d is co ve re d th at th ey, d esp it e e xp osu re to lib era l id eals , h ave h eld fir m to tr a dit io ns I th ought w ould h ave fa lle n a w ay b y n ow . I s a w th em a s w om en w ho w ere s m art, c o nfid ent a nd in dependent, w it h a sp ir a tio ns fo r e ve ry s u cce ss. Y et th ey p re fe rre d a m arria ge th at w as a rra nged fo r th em b y th eir p are n ts . N o o th er c h oic e T here w as n o c h oic e b ut a rra nged m arria ge fo r w om en in m y m oth er’s g enera tio n. S he s a w m y f a th er o nly o nce b efo re s h e m arrie d h im in 1 952. M y g ra n dfa th ers a rra nged th e m eetin g in th e n orth K olk a ta h ouse w here m y m oth er w as r a is e d. M a w as s u m moned in to th e liv in g r o om fo r m y fa th er’s fa th er to in sp ect. H e a ppro ve d o f th e p ro sp ectiv e b rid e. M a h ad a d egre e in e co nom ic s a nd w as a n a cco m plis h ed s in ger. S he w as a ske d to s in g a t th at m eetin g a nd, a s I’v e h eard th e s to ry , m y p ate rn a l g ra n dfa th er w as ta ke n w it h h er v o ic e . B ut p erh aps m ore im porta nt, M a c a m e fr o m a h ig h c a ste fa m il y o f g ood r e p ute . A fte r th at o ne e nco unte r, m y m oth er w as c o m mit te d to s p endin g th e r e st o f h er lif e w it h a m an s h e h ad ju st m et. S in ce th en, In dia n s o cie ty h as c h anged c o n sid era b ly . G lo baliz a tio n flo oded th e n atio n w it h W este rn g oods – – a nd id eas. Y ounger w om en to day a re fa r m ore o pen in th eir o utlo ok th an w ere m y m oth er a nd a unts . E ve n a rra nged m arria ges h ave c h anged a m on g u rb a n, m id dle -c la ss f a m ilie s. P are nts s till in tr o duce m en a nd w om en to e ach o th er, b ut th ey a re u su ally g iv e n tim e to g et to k n ow o ne a noth er b efo re a n e nga gem en t is a nnounce d. I g re w u p in In dia a t a tim e w hen m ost o f m y c o usin s a nd fr ie nds w ere o pen to a rra nged m arria ges. B ut o nce o ur fa m ily im mig ra te d to th e U nit e d S ta te s, m y fa th er n eve r p re ssu re d m e t o m arry a m an o f h is c h oosin g. A nd th at is th e w ay I w ante d it . I c o uld n ot c o m pre hend m akin g a lif e c o m mit m ent to s o m eone I d id n ot lo ve . T hat w as d eca des a go. I c o uld n’t u nders ta nd w hy y o ung w om en to day w ere n ot m ore in sis te nt o n e nte rin g a ” lo ve m arria ge.” T he v e ry fa ct th at t h e te rm s till e xis ts s e rv e s a s p ro of o f h ow v a stly d if f e re n t th e In dia n o utlo ok o n r e la tio nsh ip s r e m ain s. R apid c u lt u ra l c h ange P art o f th e c o m ple xit ie s in In dia n s o cie ty s te m fr o m th e r a p id -fir e c h anges th e c o untr y h as e xp erie nce d. H is to ria n R am ach andra G uha a rg u es th at In dia is u nderg o in g n ot o ne b ut fiv e r e vo lu tio ns s im ult a neously : e co nom ic , p olit ic a l, u rb a n, s o cia l a nd c u lt u ra l. A ll a t o nce a nd a t w arp s p eed. I m agin e th e te nsio n b etw een c e ntu rie s-o ld tr a d it io ns a nd th e to rre nts o f c h ange. S till, m arria ge t h e o ld -fa sh io ned w ay s e em s to b e e ndurin g. A uth or E liz a beth F lo ck e xp lo re d th e liv e s o f th re e m arrie d c o uple s in M um ba i in h er b ook ” T he H eart is a S hif tin g S ea.” F lo ck s a ys s h e c a m e a w ay w it h a d eep u nders ta ndin g o f th e h opes a nd f e ars o f In dia n c o uple s. S he e xp ecte d th at W este rn in flu ence s h ad w ro u ght c h ange, b ut s h e w as p ro ve n w ro ng. E ve n th ough w om en a re s u rro unded b y a ds a nd m ovie s p ro m otin g lo ve – – o bse ssiv e , fo rb id den, i m possib le lo ve th at d efie s a ll s o cie ta l e xp ecta tio ns – – In dia n s o cie ty is s till n ot r e a dy fo r a ll th at, F lo ck s a ys. A b ig r e aso n: th e s tig m as th at a re s till a tta ch ed to m arry in g s o m eo ne fr o m a d if f e re nt fa it h o r s o cia l c la ss. ” P re m arit a l s e x. E xtr a m arit a l a ff a ir s . W om en a re te stin g th e b oundarie s,” F lo ck te lls m e. ” B ut ( s o cie ty h as) s u ch a s tr a ngle hold o n tr a dit io nal m arria ge th at I d on’t th in k w ill c h ange a nytim e s o on.” M arria ge in In dia is a bout d evo tio n to a no th er p ers o n . A bout c a rin g, d uty a nd s a crif ic e . A n a rra nged m arria ge is b ase d o n a p re m is e o f p erm anence . It’s n ot b ase d o n lo ve th at s o m eday m ig ht fa de, b ut r a th er a c o ntr a ct th at n ee ds to b e fu lf ille d. A nd if a w om an is lu cky, s a ys Is h it a B harg ave , lo ve m ig ht s h ow u p a lo ng th e w ay. B ha rg a ve , 2 6, h as b een m arrie d fo r le ss th an tw o m onth s. S he e arn ed a d egre e in c iv il e ngin eerin g a nd w as w ork in g fu ll tim e fo r a c o nstr u ctio n fir m in A hm edabad b efo re s h e g ave u p h er jo b to m ove w it h h er h usb and to s u burb a n D elh i. S he d escrib es h ers e lf a s v e ry lib era l a nd to ld m e lo ve m arria ges a re tr e n dy. B ut s u ch a m arria ge w as n ot fo r h er. E ve n w hen s h e w as w ork in g, s h e r e m ain ed a t h om e w it h h er p are n ts . M ost In dia n b oys a nd g ir ls d on’t fle e h om e w hen th ey tu rn 1 8. In ste ad, th ey d eve lo p in to y o ung m en a nd w om en u nder th eir p are nts ‘ w in g. It m ake s s e nse th en, B ha rg a ve s a ys, th at s h e tr u ste d h er p are nts to l o ok o ut fo r h er. ” O ur p are nts k n ow u s a s a dult s ,” s h e s a ys. ” S o th ey a re a ble to fin d th e r ig ht g uy.” B esid es, s h e a dds: ” It is c o nve nie nt. It’s to o m uch tr o u ble to fin d th e r ig ht p ers o n.” N ain a e ch oes th at s e ntim ent. S he te lls m e s h e h ad a b oyfr ie nd o nce . S he lik e d h im a lo t b ut q uit s e ein g h im a fte r h er p are nts to ld h er: ” It ‘s y o ur w ay o r o ur w ay. Y ou c h oose .” N ain a s a w o nly o ne c h oic e : h er p are nts . S he w ould lik e th em to in tr o d uce h er to a s u it a ble g ro o m . S he tr u sts h er p are nts m ore th an h ers e lf w hen it c o m es to m akin g s u ch a n im po rta nt d ecis io n. ” I d on’t w ant to ta ke th e r e sp onsib ilit y o f c h oosin g a m an w hen I a m o nly 2 5,” s h e s a ys. I a sk h er a bout th e q ualit ie s s h e’s lo okin g fo r in a n id eal h usb and. ” H e s h ould b e a n ic e p ers o n,” s h e r e plie s. ” H ave g ood v a lu es. G ood m ora ls , e th ic s.” H e s h ould b e w ell e duca te d. A nd h e’s g ot to h ave m on ey. T hat la st p art is v e ry im porta nt fo r N ain a.” I d on’t w ant to s o und lik e a s n oo t o r a nyth in g, b ut I a m u se d to liv in g a c e rta in w ay,” s h e t e lls m e. ” I b elie ve if I a m c o m fo rta ble fin ancia lly , lo ve w ould b e e asie r. I k n ow fo r a fa ct th at if t h ere is fin ancia l s tr a in , e ve n if y o u lo ve t h e g uy, it w ill b e h ard to m ake th e m arria ge w ork .” T he A m eric a n w ay W hat I g ath er fr o m N ain a a nd o th er w om en I s p eak w it h is th is : A n a rra nged m arria ge is c o nve nie nt. It’s lik e h ir in g s o m eone fo r a to p g ove rn m en t jo b a nd k n ow in g e xa ctly w hat y o u’r e g ettin g. T he v e ttin g is d one b efo re a nyo n e s ig ns o n a d otte d lin e. A nd it s p are s th e w om an fr o m b la m e in c a se th e m arria ge g oes s o ur. ” U lt im ate ly , if I h ave a p ro ble m fiv e y e ars d ow n th e lin e, I w ill tu rn to m y p are n ts ,” N ain a s a ys. S he te lls m e s h e k n ow s w om en a nd g ir ls w ho a re s e xu ally a ctiv e b efo re th ey a re m arrie d. B ut t h at is s till ta boo. ” I th in k th at’s a g ood th in g. It’s h ealt h y, n orm al. B ut in In dia , if y o u w ant to d ate s o m eone lik e th at, it h as to b e a s e cre t,” s h e s a ys. I a sk N ain a w hat s h e th in ks a bout th e w ay t h in gs a re d one in A m eric a . ” It’s a d if f e re n t w orld . I c a n’t im ag in e liv in g lik e th at,” s h e s a ys. ” E ve n th ough I a m e xp ose d to it , it w ould b e a c u lt u re s h ock to m e. It’s o ne th in g to k n ow a bout i t ; a noth er to liv e it .” B ut w hat a bout lo ve ? I a sk. W hat a bout fa llin g m ad ly in lo ve w it h th e m an o f y o ur d re am s? T he k in d o f lo ve in th e r o m ance n ove ls s h e r e ads a nd m ovie s s h e w atc h es th at m ake h er s w oon o ve r h andso m e g uys a nd lo se h ers e lf in fa ir y -ta le n otio ns o f r e la tio nsh ip s. ” It tr a n sp orts m e to a l a nd u nkn ow n a nd u nre al, ” s h e s a ys. ” W atc h in g s o m eth in g th at I k n ow is p ure ly fic tio n s o m ehow a llo w s m e to g et lo st a nd le t g o o f r e alit y fo r th ose tw o h ours .” A nd h er r e alit y c o uld n ot b e m ore d if f e re nt. ” I’m n ot s u re I w ill fa ll in lo ve w it h th e g uy b efo re I g et m arrie d,” N ain a a dm it s . ” T hat h appens o ve r tim e. B ut I a m s u re I w ill lik e h im e nough to s a y ‘ y e s.’ ” I a sk h er h ow s h e w ill fe el if s h e n eve r fa lls in lo ve w it h th e h usb and h er p are n ts h ave c h ose n f o r h er. N ain a te lls m e th at h appin ess c o m es fr o m w it h in – – n ot fr o m a n ew h andbag, a v a ca tio n o r e ve n a r e la tio nsh ip . ” T hese th in gs a re e asie r s a id th an d one, b ut it ‘s n ot th e e nd o f th e w orld i f I d on’t fa ll in lo ve w it h m y h usb and in a n a rra nged m arria ge. I w ould s u re h ope I d o, b ut it w on’t k ill m e if I d on’t ,” s h e s a ys. ” W e a ll c o m e a lo ne a nd d ie a lo ne.” S he b elie ve s h er p are nts lo ve e ach o th e r, b ut it ‘s a d if f e re n t s o rt o f lo ve th an th e o ne p ortr a ye d i n p opula r c u lt u re . L ove is o nly a s m all c o m po nent to a s u cce ssfu l r e la tio nsh ip , s h e s a ys. ” It’s a lo ve th at s te m s fr o m d ependency, h abit , n eed a nd a tta ch m en t,” s h e s a ys. F ir s t c o m es s ta bilit y F lo ck, th e a uth or, fo llo w ed th e th re e M um bai c o uple s fo r h er b ook b eca use s h e a dm ir e d th em . S he th ought th ey m ig ht p ro vid e a nsw ers fo r m arria ge th at h ave e lu ded W este rn e rs , in clu din g h er o w n fa th er, w ho h as b een d iv o rc e d th re e tim es. P arv a ti, o ne o f th e w om en in F lo ck’s b oo k, fe ll m ad ly in lo ve w it h th e m an o f h er d re am s. B ut in t h e e nd, h er p are nts p ers u aded h er to e n te r a n a rra nged m arria ge. S he n ow w ants h er d aughte r t o d o th e s a m e. F lo ck s a ys s h e w as s h ocke d b y w hat P arv a ti to ld h er: S he b elie ve d th e o ld w ays w ere b ette r; th at s h e w ould h ave e xp erie nce d in sta bilit y a nd u nce rta in ty h ad s h e m arrie d f o r lo ve . ” In dia n w om en a re n ot b ro ught u p to th in k y o u w ill m arry fo r lo ve ,” F lo ck s a ys. ” S in ce y o u a re a b aby, y o ur p are nts c o ntr a dic t w hat y o u s e e in B olly w ood.” N ain a is a g ood e xa m ple o f th at. B ut fr o m o ur c o nve rs a tio n, I g ath er s h e’s s till h old in g o ut h ope t h at th e o ld w ays o f d oin g th in gs w ill n ot s ta nd in th e w ay o f h er d re a m s. ” I w ould h ope th at I a m d estin ed to fa ll in lo ve a nd lif e h as lo ve in s to re fo r m e in s o m e fo rm o r a noth er, ” s h e s a ys. M ayb e th en, s h e s a ys, th e n ove ls s h e r e a ds a nd th e m ovie s s h e w atc h es w ill s ta rt to m ake s e nse . 4 . J a pan’s ‘L ib era tio n W ra pper’ le ts w om en e at b urg e rs w it h out v io la tin g s o cia l ta boo ( F ro m J a pan D aily T im es) N ov 0 5, 2 013 Id a T o rre s L if e sty le & T ra ve l O f a ll th e p ro ble m s y o u c a n th in k a bout b urg e rs , ( h e alt h c o nce rn s, a nim al r ig hts is su es, e xp ense p ro ble m s) th e la st th in g y o u w ou ld c o nsid er w ould p ro b ably b e y o ur p ois e a s y o u e at it r ig ht? W ell a ppare ntly o ne fa st fo od c h a in in J a pan h ad a d if f e re n t p rio rit y a lt o geth er, a s th ey c a m e u p w it h a n ew p ro duct th at w ould le t w om en e at h am bu rg e rs in p ublic w it h out b ein g e m barra sse d w it h o penin g th eir m outh s to o w id e. F re sh ness B urg er n otic e d th at o ne o f th eir b est- ta stin g a nd m ost p opula r b urg e rs w as o nly a h it w it h th e m en. T hey c o nclu ded th at th e d is cre p ancy w as d ue to m ost J a panese w om en h avin g o ch obo, o r a “ s m all a nd m odest m outh ,” w hic h w hen e atin g a th ic k, ju ic y b urg e r c a n b e q uit e a c h alle nge. In J a panese c u lt u re , it ’s c o nsid ere d r u d e a nd u nnatu ra l fo r w om en to o pen th eir m outh s w id e in p ublic p la ce s. S o th eir a d a gency A d D ents u c a m e u p w it h th e “ lib era tio n w ra pper”, w hic h h as a p hoto gra ph o f a w om an , c lo se -m outh ed o f c o urs e , s o th at th e a ctu al w om an c a n o pen h er m outh w id e to d evo ur th at b urg e r w it h out e m ba rra ssin g h ers e lf . I t m ay s e em a bsu rd a nd a lit tle b it b ackw ard s to p eople in th e W est w here w om en a re m uch f r e er to e at w hate ve r th ey w ant a nd h ow eve r th ey w ant in p ublic , b ut th is is s till a r e alit y fo r w om en in J a pan, w ho a re m ostly s till e xp ecte d to a dhere to s o m e o f th ese c u lt u ra l n orm s. A ll F re sh ness B urg er w ante d w as to g iv e w om en w it h s m all m ou th s a c h ance to s till b e “ d ain ty ” a nd e njo y a d elic io us b urg er a t th e s a m e tim e. A nd a cco rd in g to th em , it w ork e d , a s s a le s o f th eir C la ssic B urg er to w om en h as in cre ase d 2 13% s in ce th ey s ta rte d c o ve rin g th em in th is lib era tio n w ra pper.

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