Possible Final Test Questions

Possible Final Test Questions

Chapter 9

Essay Questions

Compare and contrast physical development at ages 3 and 6. Your discussion should include a description of “average” development at each age in the following areas: body growth and change; and, motor skills. (Guidepost: 1)

Child obesity is a growing health problem in the United States. What are some of the factors related to this problem, and what can parents and schools do to control it? (Guidepost: 1)

Waking and talking during sleep are common in early childhood. However, nightmares and sleep terrors often give parents cause for concern. Explain the difference between sleep terrors and nightmares, and give an example of each. Offer suggestions about what parents can do to decrease the occurrence of these sleep disturbances. (Guidepost: 2)

With the mass media marketing campaign for “Pullup” pants, in which children discuss their anxiety over wetting the bed, new attention has been paid to this common early childhood problem. What is enuresis? What causes it, and what can be done to help a child who has it? (Guidepost: 2)

Discuss how art production appears to reflect brain development and fine-motor coordination. Include the stages of art development. (Guidepost: 3)

As young children grow, development occurs at both the fine and gross motor levels. Explain the difference between fine motor skills and gross motor skills, and give an example of each. (Guidepost: 3)

People traveling with young children in automobiles must follow a number of safety rules. Explain the considerations related to car seats and airbags that are important for safe travel. (Guidepost: 4)

Describe four potential environmental influences on health in the early childhood period of development. (Guidepost: 4)

Chapter 10

Essay Questions

Define symbolic function, and, using an example, demonstrate how it can be linked to deferred imitation, pretend play, and language. (Guidepost: 1)

In preoperational thinking, children become more sophisticated in their use of symbolic thought, but they are not yet ready to use logic. Discuss both the advances that this stage brings to a child’s cognitive development as well as the immature aspects, or limitations, that children experience. (Guidepost: 1)

Describe what is meant by “theory of mind abilities.” Explain how linguistic determinism, the ecological explanation, executive control, and bilingualism influence the development of theory of mind abilities. (Guidepost: 1)

Morgan seems to remember things and events that made a strong impression on him. However, memory of childhood events is rarely deliberate. Explain changes in memory during the period of early childhood. In your explanation, describe each of the following types of memory: generic memory; episodic memory; autobiographical memory; and, the social-interaction model. (Guidepost: 2)

Discuss the problems involved with asking young children to give eyewitness accounts. What if anything can be done to ensure that their accounts are accurate? (Guidepost: 2)

Compare traditional psychometric approaches to intelligence, such as the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, and Vygotsky’s idea of the zone of proximal development. (Guidepost: 3)

What environmental factors can influence a child’s intelligence test score? (Guidepost: 3)

Describe typical achievements in language development during early childhood. Discuss vocabulary, grammar and syntax, pragmatics, social speech, and private speech. (Guidepost: 4)

Vygotsky saw private speech as universal, however studies have indicated a wide range of individual differences. Define private speech and give examples. What are the three levels of private speech? (Guidepost: 4)

Should the primary purpose of preschool be to provide a strong academic foundation or to foster social and emotional development? (Guidepost: 5)

What are compensatory programs? Which of them have been the most successful, and why? (Guidepost: 5)


Chapter 11

Essay Questions

Describe the development of self-concept in early childhood. In your explanation, include a description of single representations and representational mappings. (Guidepost: 1)

Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development lists several crises that people go through as a function of personality development. Identify Erikson’s chief crisis that marks early childhood, and elaborate on its relevance to self-esteem. (Guidepost: 1)

A relationship exists between gender identity and self-concept. Describe this relationship, and include the following terms in your description: gender roles; gender typing; gender stereotypes; and, gender constancy. (Guidepost: 2)

Piaget and others identified increasing levels of cognitive complexity in play. List and describe the four levels of play, and give an example for each of the four levels. (Guidepost: 3)

Describe Parten’s research on the social development of play. Give examples of how this research can be used by teachers in the classroom. (Guidepost: 3)

Describe Baumrind’s parenting styles. Explain the effect that these styles have on children’s development. (Guidepost: 4)

Define the term discipline, and describe what methods have been shown to be successful in teaching discipline to children. (Guidepost: 4)

Explain the development of aggression in early childhood. (Guidepost: 5)

Describe some of the facets of sibling and peer relationships in early childhood. (Guidepost: 6)

Describe how children choose playmates, and explain why some children are more popular than others. (Guidepost: 6)

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