Prepare an 18-20-slide (not including the title and reference slides) PowerPoint presentation on the topic of murder. Explanation of the different forms of murder, including: first-degree murder, seco

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Prepare an 18-20-slide (not including the title and reference slides) PowerPoint presentation on the topic of murder.

  1. Explanation of the different forms of murder, including: first-degree murder, second-degree murder, abandoned heart, intent to cause grievous bodily harm resulting in death, felony murder rule.
  2. Explain the concepts of voluntary manslaughter and involuntary manslaughter.
  3. Provide for the required mental states of murder as defined by the legal system.
  4. Differentiate psychopathological theories that might explain murder.

Speaker notes of 150-200 words for each slide must be included. Use three to five scholarly resources to support your explanations.While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, including an APA formatted reference slide

Prepare an 18-20-slide (not including the title and reference slides) PowerPoint presentation on the topic of murder. Explanation of the different forms of murder, including: first-degree murder, seco
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Eve n t h o ug h t h e la w o f m urd er d iff ers f r o m o ne s ta te t o a no th e r, m ost o f t h e m h a ve co m mon d egre es o f m urd er. Murd er h a s m any c a te gorie s lik e fi rs t-d egre e m urd er w hic h is a d elib era te k illin g , s e co nd – degre e m urd er w hic h is u np re m edit a te d b ut t h e k ille r in te nd ed t o c a use f a ta l b odily h a rm and f e lo ny m urd er w hic h h a ppens w he n k illin g h a ppens in t h e p ro ce ss o f c o m mis sio nin g dang ero us f e lo ny. Als o , t h e p re cis e p ena lt y f o r m urd er v a rie s f r o m o ne c o untr y t o a no th e r, a lt h o ug h it no rm ally g ets a n im pris o nm ent s e nte nce f o r m any y e ars in a ll t h e s ta te s. G ene ra lly , punis h m ent r a ng es f r o m d eca des t o lif e in p ris o n w he re p aro le m ay o r m ay n o t b e off ere d. T he p unis h m ent f o r s e co nd d egre e is u su a lly le sse r c o m pare d t o fi rs t d egre e. Som e s ta te s p ena liz e s e rio us fi rs t-d egre e m urd er b y is su in g o ut d eath p ena lt y . 2 Fir s t d egre e m urd er This is t h e d elib era te m urd er o f a n in d iv id ua l b y a p ers o n w ho h a s p erfo rm ed t h e k illin g kno w in g ly , in te ntio na lly o r w it h p la nnin g . Fir s t d egre e m urd er c a n b e p re m edit a te d in te nt t o k ill o r f e lo ny m urd er. In p re m edit a te d in te nt t o k ill t h e o ff end er s h o uld h a ve s p ent s o m e t im e t o r e flect, p la n, re aso n a nd e va lu a te t h e ir d ecis io n t o k ill. Courts n o rm ally f o cu s o n p re m edit a tio n a nd s e arc h f o r e vid ence t h a t t h e d efe nd ant delib era te d a nd a ft e rw ard s f o rm ed t h e in te nt t o c o m mit m urd er b efo re t h e a ctu a l a ct. This is defe nd able b eca use t h e o ff end er m ust h a ve t h o ug ht a bout k illin g f o r a g iv e n t im e and d id n o t c h a ng e t h e ir m in d . A m urd er in w hic h t h e p erp etr a to r d elib era te d t o k ill b ut murd ers t h e in co rre ct p ers o n o r a no th e r p ers o n is t e rm ed a s a fi rs t d egre e m urd er. The t h re e f e atu re s o f fi rs t d egre e m urd er in clu d e w illin g ne ss, d elib era tio n a nd pre m edit a tio n. A ls o , t h e re a re a n um ber o f f a cto rs t h a t in d ic a te p la nnin g a nd delib era tio n. T he y a re ; la ck o f a ggra va tio n f r o m t h e t a rg et, m ove m ents a nd w ord s o f t h e perp etr a to r b efo re a nd a ft e r c o m mit tin g m urd er, a ny t h re ats f r o m t h e o ff end er b efo re and a ft e r/o r w hile c o m mit tin g m urd er, if t h e v ic tim a nd p erp etr a to r h a d a n u np le asa nt past, if t h e re w as a f u rth e r f a ta l h it a ft e r t h e t a rg et w as h e lp le ss, p ro of o f v io le nce , a nd th e a ppeara nce a nd n um ber o f in ju rie s 3 Seco nd d egre e m urd er This is u np la nne d k illin g o f a p ers o n o r m urd er c a use d b y d efe nd ant’s c a re le ss c o nd uct th a t s h o w s la ck o f c o nce rn f o r a p ers o n’s lif e . Seco nd d egre e m urd er r e ce iv e s m in o r p unis h m ent in c o m paris o n t o t h e fi rs t d egre e murd er. In te nt t o c a use s e rio us b odily h a rm w hic h c a n le ad t o d eath is a ls o a s e co nd d egre e murd er  in t h e p ro ce ss o f: in t h e p ro ce ss o f  Web C on te n t: http s://w ww.c rim in ald efe n se la w yer.c o m /r e so u rc e s/m urd er-a nd-h om ic id e.h tm …  Web C on te n t: http s://w ww.la w .c o rn ell.e du /w ex/fi rs t_ d egre e_m urd er …  Spellin g m is ta ke : defe n da ble  depen da ble Diff ere nt ju ris d ic tio n d efine s s e co nd d egre e m urd er d iff ere ntly . In s e co nd d egre e m urd er, th e k ille r d oes n o t p la n t o c o m mit m urd er, h o w eve r a t t h e t im e it t a ke s p la ce , t h e k ille r wit h o ut d oub t in te nd s t o k ill t h e v ic tim . F o r e xa m ple , n e ig hb ors a rg uin g o ve r lo ud n o is e and in t h e p ro ce ss o ne o f t h e m t a ke s a g un a nd s h o ots t h e o th e r. Seco nd d egre e m urd er ha ppens W he n m urd er o ccu rs a s a r e su lt o f d efe nd ant’s e xtre m e in d iff ere nce t o t h e im porta nce o f h um an lif e . E xtre m e in d iff ere nce m eans a c o m ple te d is re gard o f t h e pro babilit y t h a t a n a ctio n w ill k ill s o m eone . Ano th e r s e co nd d egre e m urd er is w he n a p erp etr a to r p la ns t o c a use s e ve re b odily h a rm to t h e v ic tim b ut is a w are t h a t t h e v ic tim c o uld d ie f r o m t h e a ct. F o r e xa m ple , a perp etr a to r s tr ik in g t h e v ic tim o n t h e h e ad u sin g a b lu nt o bje ct w it h o ut t h e in te ntio n o f killin g h im b ut a ls o k no w s t h a t a b lo w t o t h e h e ad c o uld c a use d eath 4 Aband one d h e art This is a n in te ntio na l a ct t h a t is v e ry d ang ero us a nd it s h o w s c o m ple te in d iff ere nce t o a pers o n’s lif e . In o rd er t o c o nvic t s o m eone o f a band one d h e art t h e s ta te m ust p ro ve t h e f o llo w in g ; Tha t t h e p erp etr a to r is t h e m ain c a use o f t h e v ic tim ’s d eath Tha t t h e d efe nd ant’s b eha vio r c re ate d a g re at r is k t o t h e lif e o f t h e v ic tim Tha t t h e p erp etr a to r, e ve n a w are o f s u ch h ig h r is k , a cte d w it h e xtre m e d is re gard o f lif e th re ate nin g c o nse que nce s Aband one d h e art m urd er is t h e k illin g o f a p ers o n in a w ay t h a t s h o w s a c a llo us d is re gard fo r t h e im porta nce o f h um an lif e . T he f a cts t h a t c a use t h is t o b e a ty p e o f s e co nd -d egre e murd er o r m ansla ug hte r is le ft t o t h e s ta te o r a ny o th e r t r ie r o f f a ct, w he re t h e y u su a lly base o n t h e d egre e o f r e ck le ssn e ss s h o w n. If t h e d efe nd ant’s c o nd uct s h o w s e xtre m e in d iff ere nce t o lif e , t h e n t h e m urd er c a n b e te rm ed a s a d epra ve d h e art. If t h e o ff end er’s c o nd uct is m ere ly r e ck le ssn e ss, t h e n it is mansla ug hte r. E xa m ple o f d epra ve d h e art m urd er is a m an d riv in g u nd er t h e in fl ue nce o f beer, c ig ar r a te a nd c o ca in e s u d denly h e r e ce iv e s a t e xt m essa ge a nd w it h o ut t h in kin g , he g ets t h e p ho ne a nd s ta rts r e adin g t h e m essa ge c a usin g h im t o r u n a r e d lig ht a nd bro adsid e a no th e r v e hic le t u rn in g le ft a nd in sta ntly k ills a c h ild s it tin g in a p asse ng er’s se at. H e r e ve rs e s t h e c a r le ave s t h e s c e ne o f t h e a ccid ent. 5 In te nt t o c a use g rie vo us b odily h a rm r e su lt in g t o d eath Grie vo us b odily h a rm r e su lt in g t o d eath is t h e k illin g o f a p ers o n d urin g a n a tta ck t h a t was s u p pose d t o c a use t h e m g rie vo us b odily h a rm lik e a v e ry s e ve re in ju ry t h a t le ads t o perm ane nt d is fi gurin g , t h e d am age o f a f e tu s o r a ny f a ta l b odily d is e ase s. The s e nte nce f o r s e rio us b odily h a rm w it h in te nt is s e nte nce f o r lif e in p ris o n. H ow eve r, if it g rie vo us b odily w it h o ut in te nt t h e n o ne c a n b e s e nte nce d f o r 5 y e ars in a m axim um pris o n. F o r e xa m ple , if t h e a tta ck e r s ta bbed t h e v ic tim le adin g t o d eath , e ve n if t h e atta ck e r in te nd ed t o h a rm t h e v ic tim , t h e a tta ck e r w ould s till b e lia ble f o r k illin g . Whe n t h e c rim e f a lls u nd er t h e “ c o m mit te d u nla w fu lly a nd m alic io usly ” t h e n it m eans t h a t th e v ic tim d id n o t h a ve a ny p ro te ctio n lik e f o rc e u se d f o r p re ve ntin g c rim e, s e lf- d efe nse , defe nse o f a no th e r o r d efe nse o f p ro perty . If g rie vo us b odily h a rm h a s b een p erfo rm ed w it h t h e in te nt t o c a use s e ve re in ju ry , o r wound in g w hic h la te r le ads t o d eath a nd a w eapon w as u se d, t h is m ake s t h e c rim e m ore se rio us. The re a re a lo t o f a ctio ns t h a t a re s e en a s g rie vo us b odily h a rm t h e y in clu d e; s ta bbin g so m ebody, h it tin g s o m ebody w it h a b ase ball b at a nd o th e rs . 6 Fe lo ny m urd er r u le This is a r u le t h a t a llo w s t h e p erp etr a to r t o f a ce fi rs t d egre e m urd er c h a rg e f o r t h e k illin g th a t h a ppens in t h e c o urs e o f a n e xtre m ely d ang ero us f e lo ny. The r u le o nly a pplie s t o t h e c rim es t e rm ed a s “ in he re ntly d ang ero us” The u nd erly in g p rin cip le b ehin d t h is r u le is t h a t t h e s o cie ty v ie w s s o m e c rim es t o b e v e ry dang ero us t h a t t h e s o cie ty w ant t o d is c o ura ge p eople f r o m p artic ip atin g in t h e m . The r u le s ta te s t h a t if a n in d iv id ua l e ng ages in a v e ry d ang ero us la w -b re akin g , t h a t in d iv id ua l m ay b e h e ld r e sp onsib le f o r t h e f a ta l p ena lt ie s o f t h a t w ro ng d oin g , e ve n th o ug h a d iff ere nt p ers o n c a use d t h e a ctu a l d eath . The f e lo ny m urd er r u le h a s b een e xe m pte d f r o m t h e s ta nd ard r u le s o f h o m ic id e. U su a lly , an off end er is s e nte nce d o f k illin g o nly if a p ro se cu tin g a tto rn e y s h o w s t h a t t h e o ff end er perfo rm ed w it h in te ntio n o f k illin g o r w it h a c a re le ss in d iff ere nce t o h um an lif e . H ow eve r, in t h e f e lo ny m urd er r u le , a p erp etr a to r c a n b e c o nvic te d o f m urd er e ve n t h o ug h t h e perp etr a to r d id n o t h a ve a n in te ntio n n o r c a re le ss in d iff ere nce ; t h e p ro se cu tin g a tto rn e y must o nly p ro ve t h a t t h e p erp etr a to r w as in vo lv e d in a c rim e w he re liv e s w ere lo st. A n um ber o f d iv e rs e s ta te s c la ssif y d iff ere nt c rim es a s p erm ane ntly d ang ero us, it m ay in clu d e t h e ft , r a pe, b urg la ry , a bductio n a nd a rs o n. F e lo ny m urd er c a n h a ppen in v a rio us cir c u m sta nce s, m any o f t h e m c a n b e s u rp ris in g .  ty pe o f ( o m it ): ty pe o f  Web C on te n t: http s://o pen .lib .u m n.e du /c rim in alla w /c h apte r/9 -5 -s e co n d-d egre e-m urd er/ …  Web C on te n t: http s://w ww.w kla w .c o m /t h e-f e lo n y-m urd er-r u le / …  Thre e s u cce ssiv e s e n te n ce s b egin w it …: The 7 Conce pts o f v o lu nta ry m ansla ug hte r It is o ft e n k no w n a s “ h e at o f p assio n” It t a ke s p la ce w he n a n in d iv id ua l ; Is g re atly p ro vo ke d t h a t is u nd er a ny c o nte xt t h a t c o uld e qua lly p ro vo ke a n o rm al p ers o n and Com mit s m urd er in t h e h e at o f p assio n s tim ula te d b y t h e p ro vo ca tio n How eve r f o r t h e h e at o f p assio n t o b e p re se nt t h e in d iv id ua l m ust n o t h a ve eno ug h t im e to c a lm d ow n f r o m t h e p ro vo ca tio n Mansla ug hte r c o nta in s t h e k illin g o f a no th e r in d iv id ua l h o w eve r it is s e para te f r o m t h e crim e o f m urd er. A t o th e r t im es t h e lin e b etw een m ansla ug hte r a nd m urd er is n o t v e ry cle ar. M ansla ug hte r la ck s m alic e a fo re th o ug ht t h e re fo re it s h o w s t h a t it h a s f e w er m ora l bla m e t h a n t h e fi rs t a nd s e co nd d egre e m urd er. V o lu nta ry m ansla ug hte r is n o t s e en a s ne it h e r fi rs t n o r s e co nd d egre e m urd er b ut a s a r e su lt o f in d iv id ua l w eakne ss. In d iv id ua ls kill in t h e h e at o f p assio n m ay h a ve k ille d w it h in te nt, b ut t h e e m otio na l c ir c u m sta nce is a ju stif y in g f a cto r t h a t d ecre ase s t h e ir m ora l lia bilit y . A g ood illu str a tio n o f v o lu nta ry m ansla ug hte r in clu d es a w if e c o m in g h o m e s u d denly t o find t h e h usb and c o m mit tin g in fi delit y . T he s ig ht m ay p ro vo ke t h e w if e in to h e at o f passio n t h a t s h e k ills t h e p ara m our im media te ly , t h e ju ry o r ju d ge m ig ht t e rm t h e m urd er as v o lu nta ry m ansla ug hte r. V o lu nta ry m ansla ug hte r is a s e rio us c rim e, b ut it s p unis h m ent is a lit tle le ss t h a n t h a t g iv e n f o r m urd er. 8 In vo lu nta ry m ansla ug hte r This is t h e u nin te nd ed h o m ic id e f r o m ne glig ence o r c a re le ss c o nd uct. Als o , it is a ccid enta l k illin g w he n u nd erta kin g a c rim e o th e r t h a n f e lo ny. The lin e b etw een m urd er a nd m ansla ug hte r is a t it s p eak whe n it c o m es t o in vo lu nta ry mansla ug hte r. T his is s in ce a k illin g t h a t o ccu rs u nin te ntio na lly f r o m e xtre m e r e ck le ssn e ss ca n b e c a te goriz e d a s s e co nd d egre e m urd er. Le gis la tu re a nd c o urts h a ve c re ate d a w ho le b ody o f la w s d is c u ssin g in d iv id ua l le ve l o f th in kin g v a rie s b etw een u nin te ntio na l s e co nd d egre e m urd er a nd in vo lu nta ry mansla ug hte r. W ha t d ete rm in e s t h e d iff ere nce s is h o w m ora lly c h a rg eable t h e f a ct in ve stig ato r s e es t h e d efe nd ant. In vo lu nta ry m ansla ug hte r d oes n o t n e ed t h o ug ht o r pla nnin g , o r e ve n in te ntio n t h us m akin g it t h e lo w est h o m ic id e. In vo lu nta ry m ansla ug hte r t a ke s p la ce w he n a o ff end er r e ck le ssly o r n e gle ctfu lly p erfo rm an a ctio n t h a t c a use s a no th e r in d iv id ua l t o d ie . Reck le ssn e ss s h o w s t h a t t h e d efe nd ant was a w are o f t h e r is k t h e y w ere c re atin g , w he re as n e glig ence s h o w s t h a t t h e d efe nd ant as n o t a w are o f t h e r is k b ut p ra ctic a lly s h o uld b e a w are o f it . F o r e xa m ple , w he n a p olic e offi ce r m is ta ke nly d ra w s a w eapon in ste ad o f a T a se r a nd s h o otin g a v ic tim d urin g a tr a ffi c s to p. The s e co nd t y p e a ris e s f r o m a n u nin te ntio na l k illin g t h a t h a ppens w he n d oin g a mis d em eano r o r a lo w -le ve l f e lo ny t h a t d oes n o t a ctiv a te t h e f e lo ny m urd er r u le 9 Requir e d m enta l s ta te f o r m urd er Most c rim es n e ed “ M en re a ” guilt y m in d t h a t is w ha t w as t h e p erp etr a to r m enta l s ta te and w ha t d id t h e p erp etr a to r a ntic ip ate w he n t h e c rim e w as d one . Men re a e na ble s t h e ju stic e s y ste m t o d is tin g uis h b etw een a n in d iv id ua l w ho d id n o t in te nd t o g o a gain st t h e la w a nd t h e o ne w ho in te nd ed t o . The re a re d iff ere nt m enta l s ta te s lik e c a re le ss v s c rim in a l w he re c a re le ssn e ss c a use s c iv il ch a rg e o nly . B ut, s o m etim e c o m mon c a re le ssn e ss c h a ng es in to s o m eth in g m ore bla m ew orth y, a nd s o m e c rim in a l a cts h a ve r a is e d n e glig ence p rin cip le s lik e c rim in a l o r re ck le ss n e glig ence . In in te ntio na l a nd u nin te ntio na l w he re d elib era te h a rm fu l b eha vio r is u su a lly c rim in a l w hile u nin te ntio na l h a rm fu l b eha vio r h a s t w o s im ple t y p es “ m is ta ke in fa ct” a nd “ m is ta ke o f la w ” The re a re a n um ber o f c rim in a l la w s t h a t d o n o t n e ed a ny mens re a o r m enta l s ta te . It usu a lly a pplie s o n s o m e a cts t h a t w arra nt c rim in a l p unis h m ent ir re sp ectiv e o f in te nt, oft e n t h o se c o nce rn in g c h ild re n. A lo t o f c rim in a l la w s n e ed a n in d iv id ua l t o p artic ip ate in unla w fu l a ctiv it y w hile k no w in g it . Whic h s e ctio n o f t h e c rim e n e ed t o b e d one w he n a pers o n is a w are r e lie s o n t h e c rim e. Specifi c in te nt c rim es a re w ro ng doin g s w he re a n a ctio n h a s t o b e c o m ple m ente d b y a pre cis e in te ntio n t o d o it . A ls o , m otiv e s h o w s t h a t s o m eth in g w as p erfo rm ed in te ntio na lly or k no w in g ly 10 Care le ss b eha vio r Eve ry d ay c a re le ssn e ss is n o t a c rim e. H ow eve r, m ore t h a n e ve ry d ay c a re le ssn e ss c a n am ount t o mens re a . Gene ra lly , c a re le ssn e ss c a n b eco m e a c rim e w he n a n in d iv id ua l ” r e ck le ssly n e gle ct a sig nifi ca nt a nd u nju stifi able r is k ” w hic h e nd u p c a usin g d eath .  Wro n g a rtic le : a  an  Web C on te n t: http s://o pen .lib .u m n.e du /c rim in alla w /c h apte r/9 -6 -m ansla ugh te r/ …  Spellin g m is ta ke : re a  are a  Spellin g m is ta ke : re a  are a  Spellin g m is ta ke : men s  men  Spellin g m is ta ke : re a  are a  Punctu atio n e rro r, s e n te n ce lo oks …: Whic h  Spellin g m is ta ke : men s  men  Spellin g m is ta ke : re a  are a  Unpa ir e d b ra ce s, b ra ck e ts , q u ota tio n m …: ”  Unpa ir e d b ra ce s, b ra ck e ts , q u ota tio n m …: ” ca re le ssn e ss o utc o m es a re o nly c iv il c h a rg e. T ho ug h, s o m etim e c o m mon c a re le ssn e ss ch a ng es in to t h in g s m ore b la m ew orth y, a nd s o m e c rim in a l a cts h a ve r a is e d n e glig ence prin cip le s lik e c rim in a l o r c a re le ssn e ss. In s o m e c a se s, la w m ake rs h a ve a gre ed a lo w er le ve l o f lia bilit y is e no ug h t o im pose c rim in a l p ena lt ie s. E sp ecia lly s o m e c rim es t h a t in vo lv e r e ck le ss o r n e glig ent, r a th e r t h a n in te ntio na l c o nd uct. Reck le ss b asic a lly d esc rib es a n o ff end er’s c o ncu rre nt c o m pre he nsio n a nd n e gle ct o f a n exte nsiv e r is k o f h a rm . A g ood illu str a tio n, is a d efe nd ant w ho h a s b een c o nvic te d pre vio usly f o r d riv in g u nd er in fl ue nce a nd u nd ers ta nd s t h a t d riv in g d ru nk c a n c a use h a rm or e ve n k ill in d iv id ua ls , b ut a ll t h e s a m e g ettin g b ehin d t h e w he el w hile d ru nk a nd ca usin g a n a ccid ent w he re p eople d ie . Neglig ence a nd r e ck le ssn e ss r e la te in c rim in a l la w . S om e c o urts b rin g o ut t h e d iff ere nce betw een t h e t w o t e rm s, s a yin g t h a t r e ck le ssn e ss r e quir e s t h e o ff end er t o t r u ly a ppre cia te th e r is k d is c u sse d w hile c rim in a l n e glig ence c o m es in to p ic tu re w he n t h e o ff end er s h o uld kno w t h e r is k . 11 Unin te ntio na l v s in te ntio na l c o nd uct In d iv id ua ls w ho d id n o t in te nd t o p artic ip ate in u nla w fu l a ctiv it y c a n b e e th ic a lly n o t guilt y ; t h is is k no w n a s d oin g “ m is ta ke o f f a ct” A p ers o n w ho g oes a gain st t h e la w f o r t h e r e aso n t h a t t h e y m is u nd ers ta nd t h e s it u a tio n la ck mens re a t h e re fo re m ust n o t b e a ccu se d o r s e nte nce d o f a w ro ng d oin g “m is ta ke o f f a ct” c a n d is p ro ve mens re a b ut “ m is ta ke o f la w ” c a nno t Mis ta ke in f a ct s h o w s t h a t e ve n t h o ug h a p ers o n’s c o nd uct fi t t h e d esc rip tio n o f a wro ng doin g in n e utr a l s e nse , t h e p ers o n w as p erfo rm in g b ase d o n m is ta ke n und ers ta nd in g . F o r e xa m ple , a n in d iv id ua l is s e llin g d ru g s t h a t c o uld c a use d eath b ut th in ks t h a t h e is s e llin g s o m e s a fe p ro ducts . A s a r e su lt , t h a t in d iv id ua l c a n la ck t h e ne eded mens re a u nd er d ru g la w , b eca use h e n e ve r in te nd ed t o s e ll ille gal d ru g s t h a t co uld k ill. Mis ta ke o f la w , w ill n o t s a ve a n in d iv id ua l f r o m c rim in a l lia bilit y . T he la w d oes t o le ra te ig no ra nce , t h e re fo re m is ta ke o f la w is if t h e in d iv id ua l k ne w t h a t h e w as s e llin g d ru g s b ut th o ug ht it w as s a fe a nd le gal t o d o s o . It m ig ht n o t m ake s e nse t h a t a p ers o n w ho m ade a mis ta ke o f f a ct g ets o ff b ut p erm it tin g ig no ra nce o f la w a s a d efe nse w ould d is c o ura ge in d iv id ua l f r o m k no w in g w ha t is r ig ht a nd w ro ng p er la w a nd w eake n t h e e ff ectiv e ne ss o f le gal s y ste m 12 Com mit tin g c rim es w it h s p ecifi c in te nt “sp ecifi c in te nt” la w o blig es t h e p ro se cu to r t o illu str a te m ore t h a n s h o w t h a t t h e o ff end er perfo rm ed t h e a ctio ns k no w in g ly . Specifi c in te nt la w n e eds t h e p ro se cu to r t o s h o w t h a t t h e o ff end er h a d a s p ecifi c g oal in min d w he n p artic ip atin g in u nla w fu l c o nd uct. In te nt u nd er t h e la w s h o w s t h a t a n in d iv id ua l in te nd ed t o p erfo rm a n a ctio n w hic h t h e n le ad t o m urd er. F o r in sta nce , a d riv e r u nd er t h e in fl ue nce m ig ht n o t m ean t o k ill o r c a use a r o ad c a rn a ge, b ut if t h e d riv e r s ta rts d riv in g , t h e n t h e in te ntio n t o d riv e w hic h t h e n le d to k illin g is t h e c o re p art o f t h e c rim e. In te nt is a g re at f e atu re s o f a h o m ic id e c h a rg e t h a t t h e s ta te m ust s h o w b eyo nd a ny re aso na ble d oub t in so a s t o s e nte nce a n in d iv id ua l. A ls o , In te ntio n is a c o m pone nt o f fe lo ny m urd er a nd h o m ic id es lik e in te ntio na l, r e ck le ss, a nd v e hic u la r h o m ic id e. T he su re ty t h a t t h e o ff end er d id n o t in te nd t o k ill d oes n o t r e m ove w it h c rim in a l lia bilit y . F o r in sta nce , in t h e c o urs e o f t h e o ff end er’s a ct o f p erfo rm in g d ang ero us f e lo ny, a n in d iv id ua l is k ille d, t h e p ro se cu to r n e eds t o p ro ve t h a t t h e o ff end er in te nd ed t o m urd er, in ste ad o f, pro vin g t h a t t h e o ff end er in te nd ed t o c o m mit a f e lo ny t h a t r e su lt e d in to m urd er b eca use th a t c a n b e c h a rg ed a s f e lo ny m urd er 13 Malic e A fo re th o ug ht This is a n e ce ssa ry m enta l h e alt h a m urd ere r m ust h a ve in o rd er t o b e f o und g uilt y o f murd er. A p ro se cu tin g a tto rn e y m ust a sc e rta in b eyo nd a ny r e aso na ble d oub t t h a t t h e p erp etr a to r acte d w it h t h is s ta te . Malic e a fo re th o ug ht h a s t w o d iv is io ns th e ; Exp re ss a nd Im plie d m alic e Exp re ss m alic e h a ppens whe n a p erp etr a to r r e ally p la nne d t o m urd er t h e t a rg et. Im plie d malic e h a ppens w he n t h e s u sp ect s h o w s a c o nsc io us d is d ain f o r h um an lif e . E vid ence o f both e xp re ss a nd m alic e is a dequa te t o c re ate a s ta te o f m in d e sse ntia l f o r m urd er. If a defe nd ant k ille d p ers o n u nla w fu lly b ut w it h o ut m alic e a ft e rth o ug ht, t h e y m ay n o t b e le gally r e sp onsib le f o r m urd er b ut lia ble f o r v o lu nta ry m ansla ug hte r o r in vo lu nta ry mansla ug hte r. The re a re d iff ere nt w ays a p ro se cu to r c a n p ro ve m alic e a fo re th o ug ht, it in vo lv e s; pro vin g t h a t t h e m urd ere r t h o ug ht a bout k illin g b efo re p erfo rm in g t h e c rim e Pro vin g t h a t t h e s u sp ect t o ok c e rta in s te ps t o e na ble m urd er  Check s t h at a s …: ca re le ssn ess  Care le ssn ess  Web C on te n t: http s://w ww.n olo .c o m /le ga l-e n cy clo pedia /w hat-c rim in al-n eglig en ce .h tm l …  Spellin g m is ta ke : men s  men  Spellin g m is ta ke : re a  are a  Spellin g m is ta ke : men s  men  Spellin g m is ta ke : re a  are a  Spellin g m is ta ke : men s  men  Spellin g m is ta ke : re a  are a  Redu nda nt p h ra se : so a s t o  to  ‘T he’ o r ‘a ‘ b efo re a p u nctu atio n : th e; The re a re d iff ere nt s tr a te gie s t h a t a d efe nse a tto rn e y c a n u se t o d is p ro ve a fi nd in g o f malic e a fo re th o ug ht. T he y in clu d e; The s u sp ect a cte d in s e lf- d efe nse o r in t h e p ro te ctio n o f a no th e r p ers o n The d efe nd ant’s a ccid ent o r c a re le ss c o nd uct r e su lt e d in t h e m urd er The a ccu se d w as la w fu lly in sa ne a t t h e t im e o f t h e k illin g . 14 Psy ch o lo gic a l t h e orie s t h a t m ay e xp la in m urd er Und ers ta nd in g t h e orie s f o r w hy in d iv id ua ls o pt t o d o c rim e is k e y t o r e ducin g t h e m a nd th us m akin g t h e s o cie ty s a fe r. The re a re t h re e m ain p sy ch o lo gic a l t h e orie s t h e y in clu d e; Psy ch o dyn a m ic t h e ory Beha vio ra l t h e ory a nd Cognit iv e t h e ory The t h re e m ajo r t h e orie s g ot d is c o ve re d a ft e r y e ars o f s tu d y o n h o w c rim in a l m in d opera te s. T he psy ch o dyn a m ic t h e ory f o cu se s o n a n in d iv id ua l e arly c h ild ho od e nco unte rs and h o w it a ff ects t h e p ro babilit y o f b ein g in vo lv e d in a c rim e. The t h e ory c o m es f r o m t h e min d o f p sy ch o lo gis t w ho a rg ue d t h a t e ach in d iv id ua l p osse sse s in stin ctu a l d riv e s(id ) t h a t dem and g ra tifi ca tio n. A s u p ere go t h a t c o ntro ls M ora l a nd e th ic a l c o des, a nd la te r a dult s gro w a s e nsib le p ers o na lit y c a lle d e go. Beha vio ra l t h e ory c o nce ntr a te s o n in w ha t m anne r d iff ere nt d oes v ie w s o f t h e w orld aff ects b eha vio r. In a s c e na rio w he re beha vio r is le arn t a nd e nco ura ged b y o ff erin g p riz e s or r e prim and . S o, if a n in d iv id ua l s ta y w it h p eople w ho t o le ra te a nd e ve n r e w ard c rim in a l beha vio r, t h e n t h e y w ill n o t s to p d oin g it . Cognit iv e t h e ory c o nce ntr a te s o n h o w p eople v ie w t h e s o cie ty a nd h o w it g uid es t h e ir activ it ie s, t h o ug hts a nd e m otio ns. M ora l d eve lo pm ent h a s t h re e p ro ce sse s t h a t usu a lly und erg o c o ntin uo us a na ly sis a nd r e vis io n s o t h a t t h e y c a n k e ep u p w it h c u rre nt id eas 15 Psy ch o dyn a m ic t h e ory Sig m und F re ud c re ate d a n um ber o f t h e orie s w hic h f o rm ed t h e f o und atio n o f psy ch o dyn a m ic a ppro ach t o p sy ch o lo gy. Sig m und F re ud in te ra cte d p atie nts d urin g t h e ra py s e ssio ns a nd t h ro ug h t h e m h e f o und ed his t h e orie s. The b asic a ssu m ptio ns is t h a t b eha vio r g ets a ff ecte d b y u nco nsc io us m otiv e Als o , t h e y a re r o ote d f r o m c h ild ho od e xp erie nce s a nd It is d ete rm in e d. Our c o nd uct a nd f e elin g s g ets s tro ng ly in fl ue nce d b y s u b co nsc io us m otiv e w he re by t h e su b co nsc io us m in d is t h e m ain s o urc e o f h um an b eha vio r. T he s u b co nsc io us m in d in clu d es menta l a ctiv it ie s t h a t a re in a cce ssib le t o c o nsc io usn e ss. H ow eve r, Ju d gm ents , f e elin g s o r co nd uct g ets in fl ue nce d b y t h e m enta l p ro ce sse s. F e elin g s, d riv e s a nd decis io ns a re gre atly a ff ecte d b y past e xp erie nce s a nd t h e re aft e r k e pt in t h e u nco nsc io us. Psy ch o dyn a m ic t h e ory s a ys t h a t e xp erie nce s in o ur e arly y e ars h a ve a h ug e e ff ect o n o ur gro w nup liv e s, in m old in g o ur p ers o na lit y . E xp erie nce s t h a t t a ke s p la ce in e arly y e ars c a n sta y in t h e s u b co nsc io us a nd c re ate p ro ble m s a s a dult s . P e rs o na lit y is f o rm ed a s t h e driv e s g ets c h a ng ed b y v a rio us s tr u g gle s a t d iv e rs e t im es in c h ild ho od. The id is t h e b asic a nd in b orn c o nstit u e nt o f p ers o na lit y . It h a s a ll t h e in he rit e d co nstit u e nts o f p ers o na lit y e xis te nt w he n b orn , in clu d in g t h e lif e in stin ct a nd d eath in stin ct. T he e go a rb it r a te s b etw een t h e u nre alis tic ID a nd t h e e xte rn a l r e al w orld . 16 Beha vio ra l t h e ory It s ta te s t h a t a n in d iv id ua l’ s c o nd uct is d eve lo ped t h ro ug h le arn in g e xp erie nce s. The f e atu re o f t h is t h e ory is t h a t p eople a lt e r t h e ir b eha vio r in a cco rd ance t o t h e re sp onse t h a t th e t h e b eha vio r g ets f r o m o th e r in d iv id ua ls . A p ers o n c a n k e ep o n b eha vin g in a c e rta in w ay if r e w ard ed a nd w ill s to p if t h e y g et punis h m ents a nd n e gativ e r e actio ns. Beha vio ris ts v ie w d elin q ue ncie s a s le arn e d r e sp onse s t o lif e ’s c ir c u m sta nce s. In s o cia l le arn in g t h e ory , it s ta te s t h a t in d iv id ua ls a re n o t b orn w it h a n in na te c a pacit y t o b eha ve vio le ntly . T he m ost k no w n s o cia l le arn in g t h e oris t p ro pose d t h a t, v io le nce a nd a ng er a re le arn e d f r o m a p ro ce ss o f b eha vio r m odelin g . T ha t is , c h ild re n le arn v io le nce b y obse rv in g o th e r p eople . M ore ove r, a ggre ssio n is le arn e d f r o m t h re e m ain s o urc e s; f a m ily in te ra ctio ns, s o cie ta l e xp erie nce s a nd m ass m edia . Rese arc h d one o n f a m ily in te ra ctio ns s h o w s t h a t t h e c h ild re n w ho s h o w a ggre ssio n m ig ht ha ve g otte n r a is e d u p b y g ua rd ia ns a nd p are nts w ho a re v io le nt. In e nvir o nm enta l exp erie nce s; p eople w ho liv e in p la ce s t h a t a re in clin e d t o c rim e c a n d is p la y v io le nt beha vio r t h a n t h o se w ho liv e in lo w -c rim e a re as. In m ass m edia , in te lle ctu a ls h a ve advis e d t h a t t e le vis io n s h o w s, m ovie s a nd v id eo g am es t h a t p ortr a y v io le nce a re n o t su it a ble f o r c h ild re n. M ass m edia a re lia ble f o r a lo t o f v io le nce in o ur c o m munit ie s 17  Spellin g m is ta ke : Psy ch odyn am ic  Spellin g m is t…: psy ch odyn am ic  psy ch o d yn am i…  Thre e s u cce ssiv e s e n te n ce s b egin w it …: The  Pa ssiv e v oic e : beh avio r is le a rn t a nd e n c…  Spellin g m is ta ke : Psy ch odyn am ic  Spellin g m is t…: psy ch odyn am ic  psy ch o d yn am i…  Pa ssiv e v oic e : decis io n s a re g re a tly a ff e…  Redu nda nt p h ra …: pa st e xperie n c…  experie n ce s  Spellin g m is ta ke : Psy ch odyn am ic  Web C on te n t: http ://c rim in al-ju stic e .ir e se a rc h net.c o m /c rim in olo gy/t h eorie s/p sy ch olo gic a l-t h eorie s-o f-c rim e/3 / …  Tw o c o n se cu tiv e a rtic le s: th e t h e  th e Cognit iv e t h e ory In t h is t h e ory , p sy ch o lo gis ts f o cu s o n m enta l p ro ce sse s o f p eople . Cognit iv e t h e oris ts t r y t o c o m pre he nd h o w c rim in a ls s e e a nd m enta lly c h a ra cte riz e t h e world a ro und t h e m . The re a re t w o s u b d is c ip lin e s o f c o gnit iv e t h e ory t h a t is ; Mora l d eve lo pm ent a nd In fo rm atio n p ro ce ssin g In t h e m ora l d eve lo pm ent b ra nch , t h e e m pha sis is c o m pre he nd in g h o w in d iv id ua ls mora lly p ortr a y a nd r e aso n a bout t h e w orld . T he s e co nd p art is in fo rm atio n p ro ce ssin g ’ whe re in ve stig ato rs f o cu s o n h o w in d iv id ua ls g et, m ain ta in a nd r e co ve r d ata . A no th e r th e ory in c o gnit iv e c o nte xt c e nte rs o n m ora l a nd in te lle ctu a l g ro w th . P e ople t h in kin g pro ce dure is c re ate d in a n o rg aniz e d f a sh io n. T he re fo re , f r o m b ir th f o rw ard , a p ers o n w ill ke ep o n d eve lo pin g . Most c o gnit iv e t h e oris ts b re ak d ow n t h e s ta ges P e ople g o t h ro ug h o f m ora l d eve lo pm ent; The fi rs t o ne is pre -c o nve ntio na l le ve l w he re it f o cu se s o n c h ild re n a nd h o w t h e y co m pre he nd t h e e xte rn a l r e perc u ssio ns o f t h e ir a cts . Conve ntio na l le ve l f o cu se s o n t e ens a nd y o ung a dult s , w ho s ta rt t o r o ot c o nd uct o n co m munit y ’s o pin io ns a nd e xp ecta tio ns. Po st-c o nve ntio na l le ve l in vo lv e s in d iv id ua l w ho a re a bove t w enty y e ars , t h e a im is o n crit ic iz in g t h e m ora l v a lu e o f c o m munit y ’s s ta nd ard s a nd r u le s a nd h o w t h e y c o rre la te t o sta nd ard s o f lib erty , h um an s a fe ty a nd h um an r ig hts . 18 Conclu sio n The re a re v a rio us f o rm s o f m urd er w it h d iff ere nt le ve ls o f s e nte ncin g . Fir s t d egre e m urd er a nd s e co nd d egre e m urd er f a ce d iff ere nt s e nte ncin g e ve n t h o ug h th e y b oth in vo lv e o ne p ers o n t a kin g t h e lif e o f a no th e r. Als o , t h e re a re v a rio us w ays a d efe nd ant’s a tto rn e y c a n n e gate a ro und t h e la w a nd c a n ne gate a ro und t h e la w a nd p ro ve t h e d efe nd ant in no ce nt. In t h e fi rs t d egre e m urd er t h e k ille r p la ns h o w h e is g oin g t o e xe cu te m urd er. T he k ille r if fo und g uilt y c a n b e s e nte nce d f o r m any d eca des w hile s o m e s ta te s d o o ff er d eath pena lt y . In s e co nd d egre e m urd er, t h e k ille r d oes n o t k ill k no w in g ly b ut h is o r h e r ca re le ss c o nd uct c a use s t h e k illin g . T he k ille r d oes n o t h o ld r e gard f o r h um an lif e . A pers o n c a n a ls o h a ve a n in te nt t o c a use s e rio us b odily h a rm b ut e nd s u p k illin g t h e v ic tim in s e co nd d egre e m urd er. The re is a f e lo ny m urd er r u le w he re a ll t h e a cco m plic e s in a f e lo ny c a n b e a ccu se d o f murd er e ve n t h o ug h o ne o f t h e m d id it . T his r u le g ot p ut in p la ce b y t h e s o cie ty t o dis c o ura ge p eople f r o m e ng agin g in f e lo ny a cts . In v o lu nta ry m ansla ug hte r a k ille r perfo rm s t h e a ct u nd er t h e h e at o f p assio n. T he re a re r e quir e d m enta l s ta te f o r m urd er th a t a m urd ere r m ust h a ve t o b e p ro ve n g uilt y . 19 Refe re nce s Murd er in t h e fi rs t d egre e. ( 2 0 16). S cre enin g t h e N ove l. http s:/ /d oi.o rg /1 0.5 040/9 78 1474 29 1644.c h -0 06 Hord er, J. ( 2 0 18). T he m and ato ry s e nte nce a nd t h e c a se f o r s e co nd d egre e m urd er. Hom ic id e in C rim in a l L a w , 7 -2 0 . d oi:1 0.4 324 /9 78 135 101631 5-2 Gro sso , S . ( 2 0 20 ). L a ck o f s ta tu to ry f o und atio n, v a gue ne ss, a nd v io la tio n o f t h e r u le o f le nit y o f C alif o rn ia s e co nd d egre e f e lo ny m urd er. G lo bal Ju ris t, 2 0 (1 ). d oi:1 0.1 515/g j- 20 19-0 022  Spellin g m is ta ke : pre -c o n ven tio n al

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