Purposive Behaviorism

Chapter 14:
NEOBEHAVIORISM

Zeitgeist

  • The United States from 1914 to 1945.

Introduction

  • Neobehaviorism ― the modification of Watson’s Behaviorism that allowed for the experimental analysis of operationally defined unobservable variables related to cognitive states and emphasized the study of learning along with the use of animal models for human behavior.

Three Neobehaviorists

  • Tolman, Hull and Skinner.

Neobehaviorism

  • Purposive Behaviorism ― Tolman’s version of Neobehaviorism that emphasized goal directed activity in animals and humans while only relying on objective behavioral data.

Neobehaviorism

  • Edward Chase Tolman (1886–1959)
  • Tolman popularized the use of the white rat in psychology.
  • Expectancy ― an internal state in which an organism anticipates an event based upon prior learning trials.

Neobehaviorism

  • Edward Chase Tolman (1886–1959)
  • Cognitive maps.
  • Latent learning.
  • The distinction between learning and performance.

Figure 14.1

Insert Figure 14.2 Here

Figure 14.3

Neobehaviorism

  • Edward Chase Tolman (1886–1959)
  • Intervening variable ― unobservable variables such as internal states or cognitions assumed to influence behavior.
  • Operationism ― the idea that science is best understood as a public, operationally defined enterprise in which phenomena may only be analyzed via methods that yield concrete results.

Neobehaviorism

  • Clark Hull (1884–1952)
  • Hypothetico-deductive system ― a system using logic derived from a small, restricted set of given truths used to deduce new, derived, and logically consistent statements. After, those deductions are tested experimentally. Statements experimentally confirmed are kept and the others are discarded.

Neobehaviorism

  • Hull’s System
  • In its final “revision of the system a total of eighteen postulates and twelve corollaries was produced.
  • Three types of variables:
  • Stimulus, organismic or intervening, and response.
  • Hull’s equation.
  • Hull was an S-R theorist.

Figure 14.4

Neobehaviorism

  • B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)
  • Radical Behaviorism
  • Mentalism ― explaining behavior by recourse to variables such as cognitions, memories, or motivations.
  • Radical Behaviorism explains learned behavior through selection by consequences.
  • SD → R → SR

Neobehaviorism

  • B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)
  • Radical Behaviorism
  • Applied behavior analysis ― the design, application, and assessment of environmental modifications that lead to improvements in human behavior in the real world using principles derived from Radical Behaviorism.

Neobehaviorism

  • B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)
  • Understanding Skinner
  • Five common misperceptions or myths:
  • 1 the role of physiology and genetics in behavior.
  • 2 the extent to which all behavior can be conditioned.
  • 3 the uniqueness of the individual.
  • 4 the use of punishment in controlling behavior.
  • 5 the existence of internal states.

Neobehaviorism

  • B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)
  • Understanding Skinner
  • Baseline ― the environmental situation or context that exists before a treatment or intervention is applied.
  • Intervention ― a specific alteration to the baseline condition designed to change the response rate initially observed.

Neobehaviorism

  • B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)
  • Long-term Successes of Radical Behaviorism.
  • Four basic schedules of intermittent reinforcement.
  • Shaping ― the reinforcement of successive approximations of a final, desired response.
  • Skinner’s utopian visions appear most prominently in his books Walden Two (1948) and Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971).

Figure 14.5

Photo 14.2

Neobehaviorism

  • Radical Behaviorism Today

The Trend Toward Cognitivism

  • With the exception of radical behaviorism, most of contemporary psychology has been dominated by a new cognitive paradigm, one derived from the sources outside of neobehaviorism.

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