Schizophrenia: Annotated Bibliography Find at least six to eight scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources that were published within the last five years, including a minimum of two original research stu

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Schizophrenia: Annotated Bibliography

Find at least six to eight scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources that were published within the last five years, including a minimum of two original research studies that discuss your selected neuropsychological disorder: Schizophrenia.

  • Include a full reference citation in APA format for each resource.
  • Summarize each resource in a paragraph (do not copy the article’s abstract—this summary should be in your own words).
  • Describe how you plan to use this source in your Week 3 outline that you will write next week.

This analysis paper:

  • Must include at least six to eight scholarly or peer-reviewed sources to complete this annotated bibliography.
  • Please use the attached template for the annotated bibliography.
  • Must include a separate title page and reference page.
  • Must utilize academic voice.
  • Please referenced attached Week 1 assignment so reference on topic chosen. You may reuse the references used in completing the Week 1 assignment. You may use the DSM-5 as one of your resources.

Schizophrenia: Annotated Bibliography Find at least six to eight scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources that were published within the last five years, including a minimum of two original research stu
0 Schizophrenia: Annotated Bibliography Your Name Institution Name Course Number: Title Instructor’s Name Month Day, Year Need help? View the following tutorial: Ctrl+Click: Making an Annotated Bibliography Want to view a sample annotated bibliography? Ctrl+Click: Annotated Bibliography Schizophrenia: Annotated Bibliography Include the number of sources required for your assignment. Use the UAGC Library to find scholarly sources. Format for an Online Scholarly Journal Article: Author, A. (Year Published). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), page range. http://doi.org/xx.xxx.xxxx When listing the DOI, create a hyperlink with http:// or https:// In your annotation, summarize the main points of the source. Be sure to summarize the main points using your own words. Do not copy and paste information directly from the source. Also explain how the source is relevant to your paper. Explain how this particular source will help you develop one or more of the main points in your essay. Author, A. (Year Published). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), page range. http://doi.org/xx.xxx.xxxx In the first paragraph of your annotation, summarize the main points of the source. Be sure to summarize the main points using your own words. Do not copy and paste information directly from the source. If you require a second paragraph for your annotation, indent an additional 0.5” and then explain how the source is relevant to your paper. Explain how this particular source will help you develop one or more of the main points in your essay. Include the number of sources required for your assignment. Format for an Online Magazine: Author, A. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Magazine Title. http://URL In your annotation, summarize the main points of the source. Be sure to summarize the main points using your own words. Do not copy and paste information directly from the source. Also explain how the source is relevant to your paper. Explain how this particular source will help you develop one or more of the main points in your essay. Include the number of sources required for your assignment. Format for a Webpage: Author, A. (Year, Month, Date Published). Article title. Website. https://URL In your annotation, summarize the main points of the source. Be sure to summarize the main points using your own words. Do not copy and paste information directly from the source. In the second paragraph of your annotation, explain how the source is relevant to your paper. Explain how this particular source will help you develop one or more of the main points in your essay. Include the number of sources required for your assignment. Format for a UAGC Textbook (online edition) Author, A. (Year published). Title of book: Subtitle of book (edition, if other than the first). http://URL In your annotation, summarize the main points of the source. Be sure to summarize the main points using your own words. Do not copy and paste information directly from the source. In the second paragraph of your annotation, explain how the source is relevant to your paper. Explain how this particular source will help you develop one or more of the main points in your essay. Tip 1: Note that references are listed in alphabetical order. Tip 2: APA does not require URLs when referencing online journal articles. Instead, find the DOI and cite as a hyperlink (ex: http://doi.org/xx.xx.xxxx). Always cite the DOI for online journal articles. Tip 3: Delete these “hints” (red boxes) before turning in your final assignment. Need more help formatting other types of sources? Ctrl+Click: Formatting Your References
Schizophrenia: Annotated Bibliography Find at least six to eight scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources that were published within the last five years, including a minimum of two original research stu
7 Schizophrenia Name University Course Name Professor November 22, 2021 Schizophrenia Affecting approximately one percent of the population across the world, schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and mental processes, social isolation, and inconsistencies in behavior (Wilson, 2013). To understand schizophrenia, one must first understand neurobiology. Neurobiology is the study of the nervous system and how it influences behavior. Neurology is instrumental in the understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders. Hence, schizophrenia being a type of NDD, can apply the neurobiological theory. Kim (2016) concurs that neurobiological theory helps understand the cause, treatment, mechanism, and results of schizophrenia. This paper seeks to: 1) Explain theories of etiology of schizophrenia, 2) examine the factors causing the disorder, and 3) explain the disease pattern associated with schizophrenia. Lastly, the paper will discuss the various treatment methods and technologies while factoring in the neurobiological aspects of the methods. Theories of Etiology of Schizophrenia Kim (2016) explains the causes of schizophrenia using the neurobiological theory, the neurodevelopmental theory, and the genetic theory. The main theory of emphasis to the paper is the neurobiological theory. From a neurobiological approach, NDD occurs when neurotransmitters start to malfunction. If there is a mismatch in the production of serotonin, glutamate, and dopamine in the nervous system, the patient may have a dysfunctional brain. This theory explains the onset of this disorder from the point where the neurotransmitters are dysfunctional. Tang et al. (2021) put out that the neurotransmitters may have excess dopamine, less glutamate, expression of high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), or low serotonin levels. Therefore, they hinder proper brain function. Secondly, the genetic theory explains the presence of genes that influence the risk of NDD. Several epidemiological studies reported that some genes are associated with different types of NDDs (Rosella and Vetri, 2021). Moreover, genetic studies confirm the possibility of genes that influence NDD when siblings are born with NDD from parents suffering from NDD. Kim (2016) concurs through hereditary reports from schizophrenia that siblings exhibit an estimate of eighty percent chances of having schizophrenia if the parents suffer from schizophrenia. Thirdly, the neurodevelopmental theory associates the risk of NDD to adverse environmental exposure, exposure to pathogens, or linkage to lifestyle patterns. Factors that Cause the Disorder Schizophrenia occurs due to several factors. One, an individual’s genetically enhances the risk of NDD. Research studies show that genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorder development (Tang et al., 2021). Here, genetic theories explain the involvement of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and neuregulin one genes in the development of autism schizophrenia (Kim, 2016). Two, the NDD’s may occur along family lines. Therefore, when someone in the family line suffers from NDD, another person is born with NDD. In addition, NDD may develop from human interactions within the life complexities. D’Souza and Karmiloff-Smith (2017), through their study of the neuroconstructivist developmental approach process, posit that the human brain undergoes changes when brain regions process different types of inputs. As a result, the brain gets injuries that impair its cognitive functions. In this sense, when the individual is in a war zone, the explosive sounds damage their brains, increasing the chances of developing NDD’s. Moreover, lifestyle choices such as abuse of drugs influence the risk of the infant developing NDD. Lastly, environmental factors may influence the risk of NDD’s, especially during birth. Therefore, exposure of pregnant mothers to chemicals influences the risk of NDD. D’Souza and Karmiloff-Smith (2017) emphasize the need for pregnant women to avoid contact with toxic environmental chemicals that affect the nervous system, such as lead and pesticides, since they increase the chances of NDD’s on the baby. Pathology and Abnormalities of the Disorder A patient who has schizophrenia may experience a variety of different disease patterns. Patients with severe cases suffer hallucinations due to inconsistent neurotransmitters. Moreover, high-risk patients are associated with several abnormalities. The abnormalities occur in the brain structure, physiological functions of the brain, neurochemical balance, or neuropathological aspects of the brain. According to Tang et al. (2021), while reporting etiological findings, those abnormalities involved: less white matter, dysfunctional frontal cortex, malfunction in neuronal and membrane, and improper function of neurotransmitters. On the other hand, the chronic stage involves patients with less severe symptoms. Here, the case may result from slight alterations of neurochemicals or abnormalities associated with the prefrontal cortex. Treatment Options Based on Neurobiological Aspect The pharmacological approach involves the practical application of antipsychotics helps with the regulation of the dysfunctional neurotransmitters. For example, the use of Clozapine antipsychotic helps regulate serotonin and dopamine (Tang et al., 2021). Moreover, Clozapine reduces hallucinations while providing lower levels of side effects. Alternatively, the patient may undertake behavioral health programs. Here, the therapist administers an antipsychotic drug then takes the patient through sessions while monitoring changes in behavior (Rosella & Vetri, 2021). One example is undertaking therapy sessions to help patients learn to manage their behavior control techniques. Diagnostic and Research Technologies Employed For effective treatment methods, the doctor may recommend medication and non-drug treatment methods. First, drug treatment methods involve antipsychotic drugs (Tang et al., 2021). Alternatively, non-drug treatments involve diagnostic programs, therapy programs, and behavioral programs. Diagnostic programs are thorough and involving. In this approach, the patient needs to be aware of various steps in the diagnostic procedure, including possible side effects. If the patient and the family agree, they are given the most applicable antipsychotic followed by psychoeducation programs to help them manage the medication. Some technological advancements to cure NDD involve brain imaging. Brain imaging procedures help to evaluate the brain state. In this sense, brain imaging on the patient will help the caregiver assess the brain’s progress. Lastly, monitoring the patient’s progress by the caregiver while noting the side effects of the antipsychotic medication helps evaluate the treatment progress. Conclusion The neurobiological theory critically explains the etiology, mechanism, abnormalities, and treatment of schizophrenia. From the theory, clarity is given when defining the disorder. The theory further explains the likely symptoms by showing schizophrenia causes brain damage while disrupting internal chemical functions of the brain. Moreover, the theory scientifically explains the treatment methods and technology, thereby providing an applicable medical treatment guide. Therefore, the theory is significant to the proper explanation of diseases. References D’Souza, H., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2017). Neurodevelopmental disorders. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science, 8(1-2). e1398. Kim, M. (2016). Understanding the Etiology and Treatment Approaches of Schizophrenia: Theoretical Perspectives and their Critique. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 6(04), 253. Rosella, M., & Vetri, L. (2021). Embracing the Complexity of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Tang, X., Jaenisch, R., & Sur, M. (2021). The role of GABAergic signaling in neurodevelopmental disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 22(5), 290-307. Wilson, J. F. (2013). Biological basis of behavior. Bridgepoint Education.

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