1. Among the Toraja people of Sulawesi, Indonesia, not all was going well with tourism. In fact, resentment became so great over the way in which sacred funeral ceremonies were being adapted to meet touristsâ€™ needs that in the late 1980s, a number of Toraja communities simply refused to accept tourists. The result is that host communities find culture and traditions under threat from the purchasing power of the tourism industry. Neither are tourists better off from the cultural viewpoint. Instead of getting rich and authentic cultural insights and experiences, tourists get staged authenticity; instead of getting exotic culture, they get kitsch. Question: Within the context of the narrative presented above, discuss 4 cultural differences (Scollon and Scollon, 1995) that may have prompted the Toraja communities to resist the threats posed by tourism. Your answer must be a minimum of 700 words and maximum of 1000 words.
2. n many Muslim countries, strict standards exist regarding the appearance and behavior of Muslim women, who must carefully cover themselves in public. Tourists in these countries often disregard or are unaware of these standards, ignoring the prevalent dress code, appearing half-dressed (by local standards) in revealing shorts, skirts or even bikinis, sunbathing topless at the beach or consuming large quantities of alcohol openly. Besides creating ill-will, this kind of behavior can be an incentive for locals not to respect their own traditions and religion anymore, leading to tensions within the local community. The same types of culture clashes happen in conservative Christian communities in Polynesia, the Caribbean and the Mediterranean. Question: Using the contact hypothesis, describe the potential outcomes of the tourist-host contact indicated above. Be sure to discuss the outcomes in terms of tourist-host attitudes, interactions, perceptions, values, and communication. Your answer must be a minimum of 700 words and maximum of 1000 words.
3. 1.Each student will provide a brief cultural write-up relating to his/her representative country (chosen for Making Acquaintances: Doâ€™s and Donâ€™ts): (20 points)
- Historical background
- Communication styles (language, both verbal and non-verbal)
- Beliefs (religion, family, nature, etc.)
- Society structure (gender equality, role of children, family, ethnic groups, leaders, government, political ideologies, hierarchies)
VERY IMPORTANT â€“ your final score will greatly depend on this.
In the next sections, associations SHOULD be made with the value orientations addressed in the Values portion of this course:
- Human Nature (Universalism-Particularism, Good/Evil, High-Context/Low-Context, Uncertainty Avoidance)
- Relation to Nature (Subjugation, Harmony, Mastery, Inner-/Outer-Directed)
- Activity Orientation (Achievement/Ascription, Doing-Being-Being-Becoming)
- Human Relationships (Affectivity/Affective Neutrality, Instrumental/Expressive, Self (Individualistic)/Collective (Collateral)/Linear, Egalitarian/Hierarchical, Power Distance)
- Relation to Time (Past-Present-Future, Monochronic/Polychronic, Low-Context/High-Context
2. Each student will provide a list of â€˜Reasons for Codes of Cultural Behaviorâ€™ for tourists visiting his/her representative country. This list will explain to tourists why it is important that they follow each of the Doâ€™s and Donâ€™ts (that you listed in your Making Acquaintances: Doâ€™s and Donâ€™tâ€™s assignment), from the hostsâ€™ cultural (values of the culture) perspective, and should include the following: (40 points)
- Five major â€˜Doâ€™sâ€™ for tourists
- At least one appropriate value orientation of the culture for each â€˜Doâ€™ (20 points) (Describe in detail one distinct value orientation for each Do. Do not repeat value orientations for the items on the list of Dos.)
- Five major â€˜Donâ€™tsâ€™ for tourists
- At least one appropriate value orientation of the culture for each â€˜Donâ€™tâ€™ (20 points) (Describe in detail one distinct value orientation for each Donâ€™t. Do not repeat value orientations for the items on the list of Donâ€™tâ€™s.)
3. Each student will provide APA-style citations within the text whenever applicable and compile a list of APA-style references (reference page) for all resources used in his/her write-up (5 points).
4. On the â€˜Making Acquaintances Part 2â€™ discussion forum, each student will post his/her findings about the representative country in a thread by the due date.