negotiation and conflict resolution 25

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discusses four types of perceptual distortions: stereotyping, halo effects, selective perception, and projection. Define each of these types of perceptual distortions and provide a full example of each perceptual distortion.


Read and respond to at least two (2) of your classmates’ posts. In your response to your classmates, consider comparing your articles to those of your classmates. Below are additional suggestions on how to respond to your classmates’ discussions:

· Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence or research.

· Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

· Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research.

· Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

· Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

· Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Replie to first topic:-

Stereotyping is imposing a certain characteristic or set of characteristics on a person or group of people based on their race, nationality, sexual orientation, or some other specific shared quality of trait. In general, stereotypes are simply quick based judgements on an individual based on an observable quality or trait.

An example of a stereotype would be to say all millenials living in major cities are hipsters or to say all people who live in the South are hillbillies.

Halo Effects is a cognitive bias in which your mind allows specific positive traits to positively influence your overall opinion of a person. Psychologist Edward Thorndike coined the term Halo Effect in 1920. An example of the Halo effect would be saying that a women is kind and therefore she is likely to donate to charities. In this assumption, we are taking one positive character trait and using that to infer additional positive traits of a person which may or may not be true.

Selective perception is a psychological concept which explains why individuals perceive information differently than others based on their past experiences, knowledge, beliefs and values. You can influence people’s perception by the information that you chose to provide to them. An example of selective perception could be as simple as the glass half full/half empty scenario. No two individuals will perceive everything the same way. In selective perception, we typically find what we are looking for rather than looking for other things.

Projection is a term coined by Sigmund Freud and is defined as the way in which an individual will project their negative thoughts and/or beliefs onto another person. When a person possesses an undesirable trait this can cause a threat to their ego, rather than admitting to this trait they will project it on another individual. An example of projection could be an unfaithful partner accusing their spouse of cheating. Rather than committing to their error, they try to place the blame another.

Reply to 2nd topic:-

Perceptual distortion refers to abnormal interpretation, incorrect understanding of perceived experiences. Mainly takes place when the stimuli responses of an individual vary from how it used to be perceived or how it used to occur. The four types of the perceptual distortion include:


Stereotyping is misinterpreted judgment which is made around a gathering of individuals who are not the same as people making the evaluative supposition. Stereotyping which happens when a person assigns attributes to another individual based on membership of a specific category or group. The group includes the demographic, sexual orientation, racial, religious or social one (Longo et al, 2015).

Halo effects

Halo effects which are generalizing the attributes of an individual based only on one characteristic and without having consistent interactions or relationship with the individual. Mostly, the halo effect takes place when there is no much experience with the person and when the individual is well known. An example is a person who always keeps smiling so he or she must be speaking something which is true.

Selective perception

Selective perception is singling out particular information that reinforces or supports the previous believes and rules out the information on the basis that those beliefs were not confirmed. The person relies on what happened before or what he or she believed is true to make a ruling or judgmental activities concept (Nour, Matthew, Nour, 2017). An example is the people who are involved in a problem-solving situation, using the last case and the knowledge they have about what happened to make a ruling.


This is a situation where the individuals tend to assign other people the feelings or traits which themselves they possess. Projection occurs mainly when one person wants to protect the other one using self- concept (Nour, Matthew, Nour, 2017). This makes the other people see the person being protected as good and consistent in her doing. An example is a son being assigned good characteristics by her mother because she mother is a leader in the church.

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