Which of the following correctly describes the relationship between victimology and criminology

Multiple Choice 1

 

1. Which of the following correctly describes the relationship between victimology and criminology?

A) Victimology encompasses several sub-disciplines, including criminology.

B) Victimology can be considered an area of specialization within criminology.

C) Victimologists only study the victims of crimes, and criminologists only study the offenders.

D) The two disciplines are similar but there are clearly-defined boundaries between them.

2. The essential inquiry involved when M’Naughten Rule is applied is:

A) Was the act the result or the product of a mental defect

B) Was the person able to distinguish between right and wrong at the time of the offense

C) Was the act the result of an “irresistible impulse”

D) Was the act the result of an addiction

 

3According to the tenets of _____, neither the offender nor the victim is the real culprit.

A) the just world outlook

B) system blaming

C) victim blaming

D) offender blaming

 

4. The lower rate in violent crime, especially murder, is explained by which of the following contributing factors?

A) The U.S. economy

B) The victim’s movement

C) Three Strikes law and harsher punishments

D) A dramatic increase in the number of police officers on duty

E) All of the above

 

5. The most common argument made by opponents in Stage 3 of the rediscovery process is which of the following?

A) We have not gone far enough in protecting victims.

B) We have gone too far in protecting victims.

C) Victims are not defined correctly.

D) The Victims’ Movement has been exaggerated by advocate groups.

 

6. Arguments that the victims of a crime might share responsibility with their offenders for what happened due to facilitation, precipitation, and provocation have been characterized as:

A) just world outlook.

B) victim defending.

C) victim blaming

D) offender blaming.

 

 

 

 

7. Victimology is an interdisciplinary field that benefits from the contributions of:

A) sociologists.

B) criminologists.

C) psychologists.

D) all of the above

8. _____ refers to the practice of charging a defendant with every applicable crime committed during a single criminal incident.

A) Bedsheeting

B) Overcharging

C) Misprision of a felony

D) Perjury

 

9. Which of the following is a false statement about serial killers?

A) The majority appear to have experienced gradual or traumatic breaks with one or both parents while in their youth

B) They have a pervasive lack of commitment to conventional values

C) They usually do not have meaningful, close relationships with peers

D) They tend to involve themselves in drugs, alcohol and “marginal behaviors”

E) All of the above statements are true

 

10. According to Eysenck the foundation for criminality is:

A) The over reactive RAS.

B) Personality differences in conditionability.

C) Financial gain

D) Instrumental conditioning.

11. Which of the following behavioral characteristics is NOT typical of the psychopath?

A) Inability to give love or true affection to others

B) Unable to demonstrate genuine guilt feelings for wrongdoing.

C) Poor social skills as an adult.

D) Inability to handle school

E) Irresponsible

 

12. The DSM IV indicates that personality disorders have an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which these patterns are manifested?

A) Impulse

B) Interpersonal functioning

C) Subliminal

D) Affectivity

E) Cognition

 

 

13. The social learning of violence is believed by researchers to be a direct result of:

A) Being victimized

B) Biological influences

C) Gun ownership

D) Viewing violence

E) All of the above

14. A husband has a long history of physical abuse toward his wife and children. The wife’s order of protection and previous complaint to the policehas not stopped the abuse. One night, the wife shoots the husband in his sleep. Examine this scenario from the perspectives of “victim blaming,” “victim defending,” and “system blaming.” Please explain

 

 

15. When would-be complainants experience strong pressures from their own families and friends not to come forward and tell the police what hashappened, they have experienced:

A) cultural intimidation.

B) fear of reprisal.

C) amnesia.

D) none of the above

 

16. The following was/were believed to be able to detect criminal predispositionby examining bumps and abnormalities on the surface of the skull.

A) Sociologists

B) Phrenologists

C) Sigmund Freud

D) Neurobiologists

E) Hans Eysenck

 

17. One similarity between criminologists and victimologists is that they:

A) have existed for about the same amount of time.

B) share a pro-police viewpoint.

C) rely on the same methods used by other social scientists to conduct research.

D) all of the above

 

18.Which of the following crimes would most likely be a “crime of passion”?

A) Mass murder of all adults and children having lunch at McDonalds

B) Serial murder of children who are found alone in parks

C) Murdering a female teller while robbing a bank

D) Murdering your ex-wife

E) None of the above are true crimes of passion

 

 

 

 

 

 

19. Reiss and Roth found that:

A) Inhibited children are less prone to violence and aggression

B) Inhibited children are more prone to victimization

C) Uninhibited children are more prone to victimization

D) Uninhibited children are less prone to violence and aggression

E) None of the above

 

20. Which of the following has opened the door to a more victim-oriented approach to law enforcement?

A) detective bureaus

B) juvenile units

C) cold case squads

D) community policing

 

 

21. Describe the difference between mass, spree, and serial murderers.

 

 

22 With the exception of those who murder their families, Mass Murderers appear to:

A) Plan their attack like serial murderers

B) Give little thought or concern to his or her inevitable capture or death

C) Commit their crimes in public places.

D) All of the above

E) Both B and C

 

23. Discuss the reasons why a victim might choose to not report a crime to the police. Be certain to include in your response the victim’s role as a facilitator, precipitator, or provocateur.

 

 

24. Cognitive dissonance refers to:

A) A thinking disorder that is difficult to treat

B) Conflicts habitual criminals experience when committing crimes

C) As a need to restore balance

D) Organized civil disobedience

E) Awareness of social inequities

 

25. Compare victimology and criminology. Outline both the similarities and differences between the disciplines.

 

26. Asperger’s Disorder is a milder variant of:

A) Paranoid schizophrenia

B) Autism

C) Schizoid personality

D) Schizophrenia

E) Dissociative disorders

 

27. In their prosecutorial role, Assistant District Attorneys can take steps to protect victims and witnesses from:

A) intimidation and reprisals.

B) threats.

C) harassment

D) all of the above

 

28. The substantial variation between judges in the severity of the punishments they mete out in comparable cases is called:

A) allocution.

B) bedsheeting.

C) sentence disparity.

D) blind justice.

 

29 Hirschi’s four elements of the social bond include:

A) Alliances, involvement, participation, and belief

B) Attachment, participation, co-operation, and regulation

C) Attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief

D) Alliances, commitment, co-operation, and regulation

E) None of the above contain all four elements of Hirschi’s social bond

 

30Which of the following rules is being referred to when “a person is not responsible for criminal conduct if at the time of such conduct as a result of mental disease or defect he lacks substantial capacity either to appreciate the criminality of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirement of the law”?

A) Irresistible Impulse

B) M’Naughten

C) Brawner

D) Durham

 

31. _____ has been applied to situations in which victims played a contributory role in their own demise.

A) Provocation

B) Boost explanation

C) Facilitation

D) Subintentional death

 

32.Which stage in the sequential model of rediscovering victims involves the process of typification of victim categories and identifying classic cases?

A) Stage 1

B) Stage 2

C) Stage 3

D) Stage 4

 

 

33_______ embraces the scientific study of crimes, criminals, criminal laws, and the criminal justice system.

A) Psychology

B) Social work

C) Criminology

D) Penology

 

34. Which of the following statements is true of DSM-IV personality disorders?

A) There is substantial symptom overlap among personality disorders

B) Indiscernible symptom overlap between three or four personality disorders

C) Symptom overlap only between the antisocial and borderline disorders

D) Personality disorders are highly distinct, with almost no symptom overlap among them

 

35 The process in which police completely reject a person’s claim about being the victim of a crime is known as

A) unfounding.

B) defounding.

C) misprision of a felony.

D) second wound.

 

36. According to Lombroso’s criminal categories, the habitual criminal engages in crime:

A) In order to support his/her drug habit.

B) In order to support his/her family.

C) As a result of learned behavior.

D) As a trade or occupation.

E) Because he/she is biologically predisposed

 

37. Most serial murderers involved in cult related killings are found to be:

A) Self-styled Satanists

B) Hold office in the Church of Satan

C) Advanced in their Satanic work

D) Tattooed with the number 666

E) Psychos with Ouija boards

 

38. Sociological theories which focus primarily upon an individual’s socioeconomic standing to explain crime are known as:

A) Social Process Theories

B) Social Structure Theories

C) Social Control Theories

D) Labeling Theories

 

39. “Stephanie’s Law” made it a felony to:

A) secretly videotape someone where there is an expectation of privacy.

B) work among children if you have a record of violent crime.

C) possess or create drawings or cartoons that depict crime against children.

D) fail to disclose your status as a registered sex offender when applying for a job.

 

40. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding the Green River Killer?

A) As a suspect in the case he passed a polygraph examination

B) DNA was the primary physical evidence that lead to his arrest and conviction.

C) He only killed females.

D) He was sexually attracted to his domineering mother.

E) All of the above statements are true

 

41.Which stage of the sequential process of rediscovering victims involves the emergence of an opposition and development of resistance to further

change?

A) Stage 1

B) Stage 2

C) Stage 3

D) Stage 4

 

42Hostages often identify with their captors and develop anger toward the law enforcement officers who are trying to rescue them. This phenomenon is known a

A) reverse victimization.

B) the Stockholm Syndrome.

C) the Heisenberg Principle.

D) identity transference.

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