which type of practice is superior

Question 1 (1 point)

 

If memory is required over a short interval, which type of practice is superior?

 

Question 1 options:

  Spaced practice
  Massed practice
  Intermittent practice
  Rehearsal practice

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Question 2 (1 point)

 

Where long-term retention is concerned, which type of practice is superior?

 

Question 2 options:

  Spaced practice
  Massed practice
  Intermittent practice
  Rehearsal practice

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Question 3 (1 point)

 

One theory explaining why the distributed-processing effect works states that the spacing between repetitions facilitates memory by increasing the likelihood that each occurrence of a repeated item is stored in a different way in memory.  This is called

 

Question 3 options:

  Study-Phase Retrieval Accounts
  Deficient-Processing Accounts
  Encoding-Variability Accounts
  Multiprocess Accounts

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Question 4 (1 point)

 

Most mnemonic procedures utilize three memory processes.  Which of the follow is NOT one of these?

 

Question 4 options:

  Imaging
  Symbolizing
  Organizing
  Associating

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Question 5 (1 point)

 

What types of mnemonics are designed to help remember rules, principles, and procedures?

 

Question 5 options:

  Keyword mnemonics
  Peg word mnemonics
  Link mnemonics
  Process mnemonics

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Question 6 (1 point)

 

When information comes into one sensory system (e.g., audition) and produces an effect in another sensory system (e.g., vision), this is called

 

Question 6 options:

  Schizophrenia
  The “S mnemonic”
  Cross-modal transfer
  Synesthesia

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Question 7 (1 point)

 

According to Ericsson and his colleagues, which of the following is NOT one of the three general principles for exceptional memory?

 

Question 7 options:

  Source memory encoding
  Meaningful encoding
  Retrieval structure
  Speedup

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Question 8 (1 point)

 

If a person cannot recall a word, but is able to retrieve some information about the word (e.g., the first letter, the number of syllables, etc.), this is called the _____ phenomenon.

 

Question 8 options:

  Pseudo-amnesia
  Tip-of-the-tongue
  Edge-of-consciousness
  Nearly-known

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Question 9 (1 point)

 

The paradigm wherein a person is asked to judge whether two visually presented stimuli (e.g., letters or three-dimensional shapes) are identical or mirror reflections of each other is called

 

Question 9 options:

  Mental scanning
  Mental rotation
  Imagery effect
  Picture superiority effect

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Question 10 (1 point)

 

The hypothesized existence of separate but interconnected verbal and imaginal systems is termed

 

Question 10 options:

  Verbal-imagery hypothesis
  Memory-retrieval hypothesis
  Multiple-processing hypothesis
  Dual-coding hypothesis

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Question 11 (1 point)

 

Pavio’s Dual Coding theory is consistent with which of the following theories?

 

Question 11 options:

  Baddley and Hitch’s working memory theory
  Skinner’s behavioral theory
  Craik and Tulvings levels theory
  Miller’s magic number theory

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Question 12 (1 point)

 

Sometimes people get lost when returning from a destination.  The environment looks different coming and going.  This can be explained by

 

Question 12 options:

  Euclidean memory
  Survey memory
  Orientation dependence
  Spatial reference systems

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Question 13 (1 point)

 

Spatial knowledge is stored in the brain

 

Question 13 options:

  Hierarchically
  Neuronally
  Spatially
  Intrinsically

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Question 14 (1 point)

 

Speakers of Western languages tend to preserve _____ spatial relationships when reproducing a pattern from the opposite side.

 

Question 14 options:

  Egocentric
  Environmental
  Isotonic
  Bilateral

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Question 15 (1 point)

 

Recent experiments have shown that _____ perform better than ____ on tasks that require memory of the locations and identities of objects

 

Question 15 options:

  Males; females
  Females; males
  Dogs; cats
  Cats; dogs

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Question 16 (1 point)

 

Recent experiments have shown that _____ perform better than _____ on tasks that require keeping track of orientation in large-scale environments.

 

Question 16 options:

  Males; females
  Females; males
  Dogs; cats
  Cats; dogs

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Question 17 (1 point)

 

When you walk into a classroom and see chairs, desks, and a computer at the front of the classroom, chances are you will go sit in a chair and face the front of the classroom while waiting for the class to start, even though you have never seen this particular classroom.  The reason you do this is because you have a _____ of a classroom.

 

Question 17 options:

  Category
  Concept
  Representation
  Image

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Question 18 (1 point)

 

Categories are not as neat and obvious as they seem.  Many items are thought to be either barely part of, or barely not part of, category.  These borderline items illustrate the concept of

 

Question 18 options:

  Psychological Categories
  Almost-there Categories
  Borderline Categories
  Fuzzy Categories

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Question 19 (1 point)

 

A category prototype is a(n) _____ member of a category.

 

Question 19 options:

  Borderline
  Incidental
  Typical
  Atypical

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Question 20 (1 point)

 

The family resemblance theory would predict that which of the following would be called to mind most quickly when the category “bird” is primed?

 

Question 20 options:

  Penguin
  Ostrich
  Ostrich
  Robin

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Question 21 (1 point)

 

In terms of categorization, people generally have a preference for the _____ level when referring to an object.

 

Question 21 options:

  Superordinate
  Basic
  Subordinate
  Nominal

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Question 22 (1 point)

 

_____ categories are especially difficult for young children to fully acquire.

 

Question 22 options:

  Superordinate
  Basic
  Subordinate
  Nominal

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Question 23 (1 point)

 

Experts in a field often prefer using _____ categories.

 

Question 23 options:

  Superordinate
  Basic
  Subordinate
  Nominal

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Question 24 (1 point)

 

The theory that states that concepts are represented as a set of weighted features is the

 

Question 24 options:

  Representativeness theory
  Exemplar theory
  Prototype theory
  Weighted features theory

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Question 25 (1 point)

 

The theory that states that concepts are represented by many examples is the

 

Question 25 options:

  Representativeness theory
  Exemplar theory
  Prototype theory
  Weighted features theory

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Question 26 (1 point)

 

Psychological essentialism tends NOT to apply to which of the following

 

Question 26 options:

  Animals
  Artifacts
  Minerals
  Plants

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Question 27 (1 point)

 

Which of the following is an example of the birth of a new language, created by children?

 

Question 27 options:

  Haitian Sign Language
  Nicaraguan Sign Language
  Columbian Sign Language
  American Sign Language

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Question 28 (1 point)

 

When interlocutors share a set of knowledge, this is referred to as

 

Question 28 options:

  Common ground
  Typical features
  General knowledge
  Common knowledge

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Question 29 (1 point)

 

More than 90% of conversations occur in groups of ____ individuals or fewer.

 

Question 29 options:

  6
  5
  4
  3

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Question 30 (1 point)

 

In language, when one concept reminds us of another related concept, this is called

 

Question 30 options:

  Priming
  Associating
  Relating
  Connecting

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Question 31 (1 point)

 

When naturally occurring conversations are observed, about _____ % turns out to be gossip.

 

Question 31 options:

  20
  40
  60
  80

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Question 32 (1 point)

 

Stereotypes are part of the _____ people share.

 

Question 32 options:

  Common ground
  Typical features
  General knowledge
  Common knowledge

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Question 33 (1 point)

 

Lyubomirsky, Sousa, and Dickerhoof (2006) found that when people write and talk about negative past life events, their psychological well-being _____; when thinking about negative past events, their psychological well-being _____.

 

Question 33 options:

  Increased; increased
  Decreased; decreased
  Increased; decreased
  Decreased; increased

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Question 34 (1 point)

 

Language _____ thought.

 

Question 34 options:

  Determines
  Influences
  Predicts
  Belies

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Question 35 (1 point)

 

Cultures that often drop the pronoun in sentences tend to be more _____ in nature.

 

Question 35 options:

  Pre-lingual
  Indigenous
  Individualistic
  Collectivist

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Question 36 (1 point)

 

The ability to draw upon several sources of information and use all of these sources of information to analyze a concept is known as ______.

 

Question 36 options:

  Working memory
  Cognition
  Executive function
  Information processing

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Question 37 (1 point)

 

Many things influence our cognitive processes.  For example, it has been found that a person’s _____ influences his/her assessment of his/her medical symptoms.

 

Question 37 options:

  Location
  Age
  Mood
  IQ

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Question 38 (1 point)

 

The way that information is acquired, stored, and analyzed depends on the content of that information.  This is referred to as

 

Question 38 options:

  Domain specificity
  Content specificity
  Spatial specificity
  Local specificity

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Question 39 (1 point)

 

People with damage to the ______ cortex often show impaired judgment in the form of terrible decisions (e.g., bad financial decisions).

 

Question 39 options:

  Temporal
  Occipital
  Prefrontal
  Parietal

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Question 40 (1 point)

 

Most IQ tests include a number of different items designed to test distinct intellectual abilities.  Which of the following is not likely to be on an IQ test?

 

Question 40 options:

  Items testing verbal ability
  Items testing visual ability
  Items testing auditory abilities
  Items testing working memory

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Question 41 (1 point)

 

IQ tests are a good predictor of

 

Question 41 options:

  Work performance
  Military performance
  School performance
  Conversational ability

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Question 42 (1 point)

 

Which of the following is NOT an aspect of Sternberg’s “triarchic” theory of intelligence?

 

Question 42 options:

  IQ
  Analytic
  Creative
  Practical

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Question 43 (1 point)

 

Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences proposes that there are at least _____ separate abilities.

 

Question 43 options:

  8
  6
  4
  2

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Question 44 (1 point)

 

Intelligence is largely determined by ______.

 

Question 44 options:

  Environment
  Genetic makeup
  Both environment and genetic makeup
  Unknown factors

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Question 45 (1 point)

 

Human beings try to make rational decisions, but our cognitive limitations prevent us from being fully rational.  This is called

 

Question 45 options:

  Constraints on rationality
  Irrationality
  Limited rationality
  Bounded rationality

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Question 46 (1 point)

 

Biases wherein we rely on rules of thumb to make decisions are called

 

Question 46 options:

  Alternative decisions
  Heuristics
  Biased Decisions
  Flawed reasoning processes

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Question 47 (1 point)

 

We are influenced by the way a question is worded.  This is called

 

Question 47 options:

  Anchoring
  Availability
  Representativeness
  Framing

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Question 48 (1 point)

 

Stanovich and West believe that the way we can fix our biases is to use _____ when making big decisions.

 

Question 48 options:

  System 1
  System 2
  System 3
  System 4

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Question 49 (1 point)

 

Young babies actively choose to attend more to some things and less to others.  For example, one-month-old babies have a preference for looking at

 

Question 49 options:

  Women’s faces
  Their mother’s face
  A breast
  Scenery (e.g., mountains)

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Question 50 (1 point)

 

When cognitive growth in childhood involves qualitative changes, we say that development is

 

Question 50 options:

  Continuous
  Discontinuous
  Orderly
  Progressive

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Question 51 (1 point)

 

When cognitive growth in childhood involves quantitative changes, we say that development is

 

Question 51 options:

  Continuous
  Discontinuous
  Orderly
  Progressive

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Question 52 (1 point)

 

Piaget’s theory was one of _____ change.

 

Question 52 options:

  Continuous
  Discontinuous
  Orderly
  Progressive

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Question 53 (1 point)

 

Piaget contended that children _____ months of age and under would not reach for an object that has been taken away and hidden, because the child does not remember that the object continues to exist.

 

Question 53 options:

  11
  9
  7
  5

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Question 54 (1 point)

 

Children only focus on one dimension of an object (such as only its height, disregarding its width) when they are in the

 

Question 54 options:

  Formal operations stage
  Concrete operations stage
  Preoperational stage
  Sensorimotor stage

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Question 55 (1 point)

 

What is the most probable explanation of the fact that children from low-income backgrounds lag far behind children from more affluent backgrounds in mathematical knowledge before kindergarten?

 

Question 55 options:

  Genetic differences
  Lack of nutrition
  Lack of exposure to numerical games
  Lack of interest in numbers

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Question 56 (1 point)

 

The theories of aging that highlight the effects of social expectations and the normative timing of life events and social roles is called

 

Question 56 options:

  Inter-individual theories
  Longitudinal theories
  Life span theories
  Life course theories

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Question 57 (1 point)

 

As people age, their _____ fares better than their _____.

 

Question 57 options:

  Working memory; processing speed
  Processing speed; working memory
  Recall memory; recognition memory
  Recognition memory; recall memory

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Question 58 (1 point)

 

Older workers tend to develop more efficient strategies and rely on _____ to compensate for cognitive decline.

 

Question 58 options:

  Expertise
  Friends and relatives
  Technology
  Working memory

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Question 59 (1 point)

 

An individual’s perception and evaluation of his/her own aging and identification with an age group is called

 

Question 59 options:

  Subjective aging
  Age identity
  Objective aging
  Perceived aging

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Question 60 (1 point)

 

The idea that the social connections that people accumulate are held together by exchanges in social support (e.g., tangible and emotional) is called the

 

Question 60 options:

  Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
  Convoy Model of Social Relations
  Social Exchange Theory
  Meaningful Connections Theory

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Question 61 (1 point)

 

Research suggests that global well-being is highest in _____ and _____ adulthood.

 

Question 61 options:

  Adolescence; Early
  Early; middle
  Middle; late
  Early; late

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Question 62 (1 point)

 

Evidence from twin studies suggests that genes account for about ____% of the variance in human life spans.

 

Question 62 options:

  25
  50
  75
  90

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Question 63 (1 point)

 

This class has been

 

Question 63 options:

  fun!
  interesting!
  informative!
  all of the above!

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