Working Smart

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Week 5 – Working Smart

Developed by: E. Hope Shupp, MA, MS

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SES 465

 

 

Objectives

After studying this learning module, you should be able to:

1. Explain how flat organizations and tall organizations differ

2. Describe liaisons, integrators, and boundary roles

3. Differentiate between formal and informal authority

4. Explain the four levels of authority

5. Describe the relationship between line and staff authority

6. Describe organization charts

7. Explain how internal departmentalization and external departmentalization differ

8. State the similarities and differences between matrix and divisional departmentalization

9. Explain how job simplification and job expansion differ

10. Describe the job characteristics model and what it is used for

11. Set priorities

12. Delegate

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Organizing

Organizing is the second function of management, defined in chapter 1 as the process of delegating and coordinating tasks and resources to achieve objectives.

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Managers Organize Four Resources

• Human

• Physical

• Financial

• Informational

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Aspects of Organizing an Organization

• Unity of command and direction • Chain of command • Span of management (flat and tall organizations) • Division of labor (specialization) • Coordination • Delegation • Flexibility • Departmentalization • Integration

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• Unity of command and direction – each employee reports to only one boss

• Chain of command – also known as the scalar principle is the clear line of authority from the organization’s top to its bottom.

• Span of management (flat and tall organizations) – Deals with how many employees report directly to a manager

• Division of labor (specialization) – when jobs are organized by specialty – for example, accountants work in the accounting department, sales reps work in the marketing department, and football players are on the offensive or defensive squad.

• Coordination – about departments and individuals in an organization working together to accomplish strategic and operational objectives for its environment.

• Delegation – assigning responsibility and authority from accomplishing objectives.

• Flexibility – understanding that there are often exceptions to the rule

• Departmentalization – grouping of related activities into work units

• Integration – coordinating department activities (Differentiation – organizing work groups into departments)

 

 

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Time-Out Question #1

Follow the chain of command from your present position (or a past one) to the top of your organization. Identify anyone who reported to you and to whom you reported; list that person’s title, that person’s

boss’s title, and so on, all the way to the top manager.

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 131 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Span of Management

Span of management (also called the span of control) has to do with how many employees report directly to a manager.

Typically, lower-level managers have a wider span of control (monitor more employees) than do higher-level managers.

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Flat Versus Tall Organizations

• Flat organizations have fewer layers of management with wide spans of control.

• Tall organizations have many layers of management with narrow spans of control.

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Time-Out Question #2

Think about a current boss or coach and describe his or her span of control. Describe your own span of control if you are a manager or coach. How many levels of management exist in your organization,

and would you characterize it as flat or tall?

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 132 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Troubles Organizing the USOC

• Norman Blake of insurance giant USF&G was hired to reorganize the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC). Blake’s position was that the USOC is “too hierarchical and too bureaucratic,” which facilitated giving money to Olympic sports without enough accountability.

• His solution? Flatten the USOC, move away from its management-by- committee style, and start paying for performance.

• Blake lasted only 9 months in the position of CEO of the USOC. His reason for leaving so quickly was a lack of support from the governing bodies of the sports. In retrospect Blake felt he might have fired staff too quickly and was too fast to implement his pay-for-performance (i.e., winning medals) strategy.

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Division of Labor

• Division of labor occurs when jobs are organized by specialty: Accountants work in the accounting department, sales reps work in the marketing department, and football players are on the offensive or defensive squad.

• The MLB American League has specialized batting and pitching with its designated hitter.

• Managers usually perform less specialized functions as they move up the management ladder.

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Coordination

Coordination must be undertaken with the goal of meeting the needs of the members of the organization. They can be members of a fitness center, fans at an event, or student-athletes in a school.

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Coordination (continued)

• Coordination is about departments and individuals in an organization working together to accomplish strategic and operational objectives for its environment.

• Coordinating across jobs and departments requires systems-based analysis and conceptual skills.

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Responsibility and Authority

• Responsibility is one’s obligation to achieve objectives by performing required activities.

• Authority is the right to make decisions, issue orders, and use resources.

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Delegation and Flexibility

• Delegation involves assigning responsibility and authority for accomplishing objectives.

• Flexibility involves understanding that there are often exceptions to the rule.

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Time-Out Question #3

Is your organization flexible? Explain why or why not

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 134 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Levels of Authority

• Informing authority

• Recommending authority

• Reporting authority

• Full authority

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• Levels of authority – known as informing authority

• Informing authority – team members can inform their leader of possible alternatives.

• Recommending authority – team members generate alternative actions, analyze them, and recommend action

• Reporting authority – each person in the group has the authority to select a course of action and carry it out

• Full authority – your boss may be coming to you for advise – you now have deep expertise in some area, and she trusts your judgement implicitly.

 

 

Time-Out Question #4

Think about a task you do routinely for your company or team and describe your level of authority for this task in detail.

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 136 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Types of Authority

• Line and Staff Authority

• Centralized and Decentralized Authority

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Line and staff authority

• Line – responsibility to make decisions and issue orders down the chain of command

• Staff – responsibility to advise and assist other personnel.

Centralized and Decentralized Authority

• Centralized – important decisions are made by top managers

• Decentralized – important decisions are made by middle and first level managers

 

 

Line Versus Staff Authority

• Line authority is the responsibility to make decisions and issue orders down the chain of command. Operations and marketing are usually line departments, but some organizations also organize financial activities as line departments.

• Staff authority is the responsibility to advise and assist other personnel. Human resources (HR), public relations, and management information systems are almost always staff departments.

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Time-Out Question #5

Identify several line and staff positions in your company or team. State whether they are general or specialist staff postions.

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 137 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Centralized Versus Decentralized Authority

• With centralized authority, important decisions are made by top managers. With decentralized authority, important decisions are made by middle- and first-level managers.

• Which type of authority works best? There is no simple answer. Authority is a continuum, and most organizations function as a blend of centralized and decentralized authority.

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Time-Out Question #6

What type of authority is most prevalent in your firm or team? Are there reasons that make this choice appropriate in this

environment? Or is it not as effective as it could be? Explain.

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 137 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Organizational Design

An organization chart lays out the organization’s management hierarchy and departments and their working relationships.

• It shows the level of management hierarchy, chain of command, division and type of work, and departments.

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Four Major Aspects of Organizations

• Level of management hierarchy

• Chain of command

• Division and type of work

• Departmentalization

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• Level of management hierarchy – board of regrets and president are the top two levels of management; the vice presidents are middle-level management; and department managers, such as athletic facilities managers are first-level management

•Chain of command – see visual

•Division and type of work – chart divides the university by “product” by indicating different academic areas such as health sciences and graduate programs

•Departmentalization – grouping of related activities into work units

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Time-Out Question #7

Draw a simple organization chart for your company or team. Identify the type of departmentalization and staff positions used.

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 141 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Job Design

Job design is the process of combining the tasks that each employee is responsible for completing.

The following slide summarizes the types of job designs and the job characteristics model.

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Options in Job Design

• Job simplification makes jobs more specialized and efficient by eliminating, combining, or changing the order of tasks.

• Job expansion makes jobs less specialized. – Job rotation – Job enlargement – Job enrichment

(continued)

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Options in Job Design (continued)

• Work teams: jobs are designed for teams, not individuals. – Integrated – Self-managed

• The job characteristics model provides a conceptual framework for designing enriched jobs. – Core job dimensions – Critical psychological states – Performance and work outcomes – Employee growth: need strength

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Time-Out Question #8

Describe how you would simplify job at your firm or company. Specificity whether you are eliminating, combining or changing the

sequence of tasks.

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 144 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Time-Out Question #9

Describe how you would expand a job at your company or team. Specify whether you are using job rotation, job enlargement, or job

enrichment.

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 144 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Time-Out Question #10

Describe how your firm uses – or could use – work teams. Indicate whether the teams are integrated or self-managed.

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 145 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Organizing Yourself

Setting priorities involves asking three questions:

1. Do I need to be personally involved? 2. Is the task my responsibility or will it affect

the performance or finances of my department?

3. Is quick action needed?

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Time-Out Question #11

Make a copy of figure 5.7 and use it to list three to five tasks you must complete in the near future and prioritize them.

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 149 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Delegating Work

1. Explain why you are delegating the task and the reasons you chose this person to do the work.

2. Clearly define responsibility, the person’s scope of authority, and the deadline.

3. Plan the task. 4. Establish control checkpoints and hold

employees accountable.

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Time-Out Question #12

Think about a situation at work where you believe the manager isn’t delegating enough. Identify the obstacle preventing the manager

from delegating and list the flags that told you he or she isn’t delegating enough.

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 151 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Time-Out Question #13

Think about a manager or coach for whom you have worked or played and analyze how well he or she delegates. Which steps did your manager or coach do well, and which steps could he or she do

better?

Submit on Canvas after the watching the YouTube video by providing two complete sentences for full credit.

(refer to page 152 in Lussier/Kimball/Sport Management, 3rd Edition, 2013, by Human Kinetics textbook)

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Conclusion

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After studying this learning module, you should be able to:

1. Explain how flat organizations and tall organizations differ

2. Describe liaisons, integrators, and boundary roles

3. Differentiate between formal and informal authority

4. Explain the four levels of authority

5. Describe the relationship between line and staff authority

6. Describe organization charts

7. Explain how internal departmentalization and external departmentalization differ

8. State the similarities and differences between matrix and divisional departmentalization

9. Explain how job simplification and job expansion differ

10. Describe the job characteristics model and what it is used for

11. Set priorities

12. Delegate

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Reference Information

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• Primary Resource

– Applied Sport Management Skills,3rd

Edition, Lussier & Kimball, 2013, by Human Kinetics.

• Secondary Resource

– Contemporary Sport Management, 5th

Edition, Pedersen & Thibalt, 2014, by Human Kinetics.

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