Write a 2-5 page essay, describing what you learned in this course, what it means to you, and what action can be taken in response to Human Trafficking issues. I will attach some of the powerpoint fro

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Write a 2-5 page essay, describing what you learned in this course, what it means to you, and what action can be taken in response to Human Trafficking issues. I will attach some of the powerpoint from this semester.

Instructions Required Elements of Course Reflection Paper

  1. Concepts

    • What major concepts/problems/issues from the readings and lectures did you learn from the most?
    • In what sense?
  2. Reflection

    • What is your personal reflection/response to the course material?
    • Describe the impact this course’s material has had on you.
    • Do you plan to make any changes in your life due to what you learned in this class?
  3. Solutions

    • How can these human trafficking-related problems or issues be addressed in terms of action or commitment, either personal or (non)governmental?
    • What recommendations or suggestions do you have?

Format of Course Reflection Paper

  1. No title page. Put your name, the type of trafficking, and area/region you selected at the top right-hand corner of first page, then begin your paper.
  2. Margins: 1″ all around
  3. Font: Times New Roman, 12 point
  4. Paragraph format

    • Double-space lines
    • No extra spacing between paragraphs
    • Indent the first line of each paragraph .5” only
  5. References: Formal citations are not required for this assignment.
  6. Length of Paper

    • Minimum 2 full pages, no more than 5 pages.
    • No reference page required.

Write a 2-5 page essay, describing what you learned in this course, what it means to you, and what action can be taken in response to Human Trafficking issues. I will attach some of the powerpoint fro
Lecture 14: Working with victims of human trafficking – social services role & law enforcement tactics of prevention and response 1 Selected theories for working with victims of sex trafficking  Strength -based approach preferred over pathology (medical model) approach  What’s wrong with the pathology approach?  Focus is on fixing an individual’s externally defined problems (person defined as a case, practitioner is expert on clients’ lives, therapy is problem focused, ect . – Busch p. 143)  Strength -based approach – person is defined as unique, their traits, talents & resources add up to their strengths,  Approach where help is centered on getting on with one’s life  Trauma -informed care Overview of Trauma  Definition of trauma : When a person is overwhelmed by events or circumstances and responses with intense fear, horror, or extreme stress that overwhelms the person’s capacity to cope  Everyone reacts differently to trauma and what one perceives as trauma, may not be so for someone else  Some people experience trauma related to the investigation process or raids, instead of viewing their victimization as trauma (at least while they are still in it)  Trauma from human trafficking can be:  Repeated  Over a period of time  Often facilitated by a loved one or caregiver  Multiple buyers/facilitators  Shatters trust 3 What is the problem with the “everyone is at risk” framework? Image from Aimee Ahnemann on Pinterest Victim risk factors: Individual/identity – based vulnerabilities  Age  Sex  Poverty  History of abuse  Gender identity  Sexual orientation  Race/ethnicity  Undocumented citizenship status  Intellectual disability Mezzo level risk factors: Weak social institutions What is a social institution ?  a group of people who have come together for a common purpose (part of social order that governs behavior & norms of individuals)  Economic systems  Political/governing systems  The criminal justice system  Healthcare systems  Education systems  Family systems Weak Family Institutions  Physical, verbal, sexual, or psychological abuse in the home  Parent or child substance abuse issues  Parental neglect or rejection  Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in the home  Leads to runaway & homeless status, & vulnerability to a pimp/trafficker Weak Child Welfare Systems: Juvenile justice & foster care involvement  Recruitment sites for traffickers through other girls  Uncommonly, cases have appeared where staff are traffickers  Disproportionate involvement of vulnerable youth  Often a reflection of a problematic home life Weak Education Systems  Drop out rates  Student mobility rates  Truancy  Low graduation rates  Non -accreditation  Fewer attachments to schools, increased truancy/exposure to pimps  For adults, negatively affects life changes, increasing economic vulnerability  Role of school funding/property tax and unequal opportunity in K -12 education in the U.S. Weak Economic Systems  Need to supplement low incomes  Lack of minimum wage as a living wage  Survival Sex  In international context, push and pull factors Lack of Social Safety Nets  to address such problems increases risk to already vulnerable populations…..  Lack minimum wage as a living wage  Inadequate access to substance abuse and mental illness -related healthcare  Lack of services to address intimate partner violence  Homelessness  Child abuse & child sexual abuse  Weaknesses within social services for trafficked/CSE people Recruitment  These individual and institutional risks leave people and groups vulnerable to recruitment  Also note that these risks intersect , increasing vulnerability with each layer of identity -based oppression and exposure to weak social institutions  Pimps  Buyers (Johns)  Friends/peers  Intimate partners  False front agencies  Business/farms or anywhere looking for cheap labor Social Services Role in Helping Victims  Ongoing case management needs  Effects criminal investigation  Trained experts in recognizing signs of HT & experts in trauma -informed care  Access to social services & resources can be pivotal for persons transitioning out of the commercial sex industry or labor trafficking situation  Social services help to address the myriad of trauma effects sex trafficked and exploited people are likely to experience (mental health, addiction, PTSD, resources)  Identification and offering of social services for those who want them is needed  Palm Beach County Victim Services (explore website) 13 Identification of victims  Survivors are not commonly identified by social service or healthcare providers  Yet research suggests survivors frequently access health and social services (and many have contact with law enforcement)  Service providers are interacting with trafficked/ CSE people without knowing it (TED talk by M.D.)  One of big reasons for not identifying victims is lack of public awareness & professional training Task force models across the country  Enhance Collaborative Model to Combat Human Trafficking Program  Developed by US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance & Office of Victims of Crime  Provides funding to joint applicants of social services and law enforcement to create task forces  Goals are identification, investigation and prosecution, and addressing victim needs  Human trafficking task force E -guide  Core functions: Identification, victim services, investigating cases  Ancillary services: Training, technical assistance, community awareness and education 15 Providing Victim Services  Crisis Intervention upon recovery  Short term crisis stabilization – mental health or substance abuse related  Medical needs  Long term residential programs focusing on mental health, substance dependence and/or trauma  Provide ongoing support and encouragement to victim  Connections to housing, employment, clothes, and other basic needs  Legal advocacy and helps collaborate with police 16 Providing Victim Services  Stabilizing victims helps cases  Victim advocates can provide support to victims so the trial process can be an empowering experience instead of causing them to feel re -victimized  Best practices for HT developed from best practice responses to sexual assault (trauma -informed care)  Social service presence increases chances of self – identification, recognize need for services and cooperative in investigation 17 Child Protective Services, Juvenile Justice & Foster Care  A disproportionate number of sex -trafficked youth come from problematic home lives, experiencing child physical or sexual abuse, as well as neglect, substance abuse, and witnessing IPV  This often leads to runaway and/or truancy behaviors, which then increases the likelihood of going into the JJS or foster care  If the family home is seen as unfit for the child, the child will be placed in foster care or a juvenile detention facility, which increases vulnerability to sex trafficking/CSE  These are recruitment sites for pimps  Alternatively, a child may run away from a problematic home life, and may be picked up by police for engaging in the commercial sex industry, either induced by a pimp or as survival sex,  Go into the JJS, and then may get placed through CPS in foster care, and become re -trafficked, or even recruit other girls for a pimp Juvenile Victims & Child Protection Services Response  Child Protective Investigative services in all 50 states  CPS leads on responding to victims of child sex trafficking  Renewal forum provides grading system on each state’s response  Florida Safe Harbor Act and other related statutes  Utilizes screening tool for all juvenile delinquents  Screening for trauma using a trauma inventory (e.g., the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory, the Child Welfare Trauma Screening Tool)  Such inventories could identify CSE, with the aim of getting the child proper trauma -informed, sex trafficking specific treatment  Challenges to Screening – youth may be reluctant to disclose sexual abuse and CSE that has not already been uncovered or disclosed to the JJS 19 Effects of Trauma & Victims’ Needs The emotional, physical, & psychological consequences of sex & labor trafficking are directly related to the aftercare needs of survivors Increased likelihood of:  PTSD/ Complex PTSD  Anxiety  Depression  Suicidal Ideation  Dissociation  Substance abuse  Insomnia  Shortened Impulse Control  “Fight or Flight”  *Some of these overlap with PTSD Trauma – informed approach  Law enforcement follow a trauma -informed, victim centered approach to investigations  Tailor interview and investigative techniques to be sensitive to the trauma the victim has experienced  This is the difference between asking “ what is wrong with you ?” to “ what has happened to you ?”  “We need to presume the client we serve have a history of traumatic stress and exercise “universal precautions” by creating systems of care that are trauma -informed”  Provides services through a lens of understanding the biological, psychological & social effects of trauma on an individual 21 Principles of treating trauma  Build a relationship based on positive interactions, honesty and trust  Facilitate recovery, growth and resiliency through partnering and empowering victim  Want to minimize power imbalance  Collaborate with expanded community and social supports  Avoid re -traumatization by being mindful of triggers  Use a client centered and strength -based approach  Revisit assessment process over time  Service providers must also be self -aware:  Compassion fatigue, vicarious trauma, & burnout 22 Importance of Trauma Informed Care to Law Enforcement & First Responders  Frequently the first person a victim encounters outside of their trafficker  Victims may generalize this first experience to anyone who is willing to help them  May be coached to be mistrusting of law enforcement and social services 23 Trauma & Human Trafficking  Symptoms can range based on how the trafficker groomed and treated the victim during their captivity  Likely to see trauma bonding in victims of trafficking (makes it hard to convince a victim to leave)  May have been succumbed to a “grooming” process  Victims may be placed in position where they are completely dependent on their trafficker to meet needs  May be deliberately isolated from support, led to believe that nobody will accept or care about them  Anyone working with human trafficking survivors MUST understand trauma bonding throughout the legal process 24 Countering Trauma Bonds  Page 161 Busch book 25 Special Considerations  Individuals who have been victims of labor trafficking may also encounter trauma  May present with different symptomology or encounter different barriers  Know the services needed and available for victims, especially if they are immigrants  Be culturally aware of how someone’s beliefs may effect their recovery and support system  Cultural competency is crucial in social service work! 26 The Trap: the deadly sex trafficking cycle in American prisons (required video)  The Trap investigates how prisons and jails across the United States have become recruiting grounds for human traffickers, who are targeting incarcerated women and trafficking them out of correctional facilities and into pimp -controlled prostitution  Published on 6/29/18 by The Guardian  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnGjQKdJrPU (32 min.) 27 The End Next Steps:  Read Chapter 5 & 6 in Busch – Armendariz (2018)  Explore PBCHT Task Force website  Watch the required videos  Complete Quiz 4 Next module  15. Understanding, disruption & interventions at macro level United States v. Ronald Evans  In 2007, Florida employer Ron Evans was sentenced to 30 years in federal prison on drug conspiracy, financial restructuring, and witness tampering charges, among others.  Jequita Evans was also sentenced to 20 years, & Ron Evans Jr. to 10 years  Operating in Florida and North Carolina, Ron Evans recruited homeless US citizens from shelters across the Southeast, including New Orleans, Tampa, and Miami, with promises of good jobs and housing.  At Palatka, Florida and Newton Grove, North Carolina area labor camps, the Evans deducted rent, food, crack cocaine and alcohol from workers’ pay, holding them perpetually indebted in what the DOJ called “a form of servitude morally and legally reprehensible.”  The Palatka labor camp was surrounded by a chain link fence topped with barbed wire, with a No Trespassing sign.  The CIW and a Miami -based homeless outreach organization, Touching Miami with Love, began the investigation and reported the case to federal authorities in 2003.  In Florida, Ron Evans worked for grower Frank Johns. Johns was 2004 Chairman of the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, the powerful lobbying arm of the Florida agricultural industry. As of 2017, he remained the chairman of the group’s budget and finance committee. 29 30 Image from Google maps Sex Trafficking Indicators* The commonly reported sex -trafficking indicators include:  signs a person is being controlled;  presents with a lack of identification and/or official documents*;  signs a person does not have freedom of movement*;  signs of physical abuse*;  is accompanied by another person who will not allow the client to be alone with the social worker or speak on her or his own behalf;  presents with answers that appear scripted or rehearsed*;  does not appear to have the freedom to leave her or his employment*; &  presents as anxious, depressed and/or fearful  *These commonly reported indicators are problematic and not consistent with extant research. They often conflate labor and sex trafficking, assume international context, and are based on worst case atypical scenarios. They should be used with caution or not used. They are used in trainings across the U.S. Child/youth specific indicators for identification  Chronic runaway  Chronic truancy or absences  Untruthfulness about age  Possesses hotel room keys  Has a fake ID  Involved with a “boyfriend” who is much older (not school -age)  Dresses inappropriately for the season or does not seem to have control over their wardrobe and accessories,  Talks about sexual activities that exceed age -group norms,  Has extensive knowledge of the commercial sex industry,  Displays signs of physical abuse or substance abuse  Appears fearful, anxious, or depressed  If a service provider ever encounters a person engaging in prostitution under the age of 18, that child is – by law – a survivor/victim of sex trafficking These are better, but also note not all of these will be present Palm Beach County Human Trafficking Task Force  Mission : combat human trafficking through a collaborative, victim centered, trauma informed framework by:  Identifying, rescuing, and restoring victims  Investigating and prosecuting trafficking crimes  Building awareness about trafficking in/around our community  The Task Force is includes several core partners: PB Sheriff’s Office, Catholic Charities Diocese of Palm Beach, the State Attorney’s Office, the U.S. Attorney’s Office, FBI, Homeland Security Investigations, PBC Victim Services, Department of Children & Families, & Barry Un.  Since its inception, many additional law enforcement and victim service provider partners have also joined  The Human Trafficking Coalition of the Palm Beaches along with Palm Beach County Victim Services provides trainings to PBC employees, local schools, community agencies, and law enforcement to raise awareness of HT Age  Debates, problems with prior research only examining DMST  Age of entry Sex  Female  Male  Non -binary/ genderqueer/ gender -nonconforming  Dynamics specific to these groups LGBTQ* Identities  Increased risk often due to non -accepting parents or school bullying  Leads to increased risk of runaway, truancy, homelessness  Susceptible to buyers & peer -facilitated entry into survival sex  Barriers to services Ark of Freedom Alliance – non -profit in Fort Lauderdale geared toward helping runaway & homeless males and LGBTQ youth who are at risk for sexual exploitation and human trafficking Race and Ethnicity  Disproportionate victimization in sex trafficking statistics  Disproportionate criminalization in juvenile prostitution (sex trafficking!) statistics  Black, Latino/a, & Native individuals in particular Undocumented Immigrants  Economic exploitation  Bait & switch tactics  Overlap with labor exploitation  Specific coercion related to deportation threats  Distrust/fear of justice system & criminalization Intellectual Disability  Risk of sexual abuse higher  More likely to have limited understandings of their right to decline sex or sexual exploitation  Difficulty in making decisions, easily manipulated compared to a person with an average IQ  Traffickers choose those with an intellectual disability purposefully, as they are less likely to be believed if they seek out assistance, including police Barriers to Leaving  Emotional barriers  Stigmatization  Physical, emotional, economic, abuse  Debt bondage  Cultural beliefs  Gaps in services  Feelings of low self -worth, shame  Love/intimate relationship w/ the trafficker/pimp  Nowhere to go  Fear of retaliation  Debt bondage  Addiction  Limited ESA  Lack of options  Barriers to accessing services  Criminalization
Write a 2-5 page essay, describing what you learned in this course, what it means to you, and what action can be taken in response to Human Trafficking issues. I will attach some of the powerpoint fro
Lecture 8 Prostitution policies worldwide & the Swedish model Liberal Feminists (Review) • Agency in making choice to sell sex (empowering) • Victimization may still occur, and victimization results from illegality • It’s “sex work,” not prostitution • Patriarchy as state control of women’s bodies (laws) • It should always be an option/survival strategy for poor women • All about LEGALIZATION Radical Feminists – (Review) • Victimization is inherent to prostitution, all prostitution is exploitive and harmful • Reject the idea that prostitution can be voluntary (expression of agency) • Prostitution violates human rights ( always coercive ) • Legalization/Decriminalization denies agency of women in broader society (equates state legalization of selling women’s bodies as commodities or sexual objects as removing all women’s agency) • Patriarchy as sexual objectification of women • Prostitution reflects and reproduces p atriarchy • “Greater Good” for all women supersedes individual choices of some women (sexual agency to choose to prostitute oneself) Intersectional Feminists • Poverty, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, race, ethnicity, global power relations all impact prostitution • We must include men/boys, LGBTQ* people in the discussion, reject essentialism • Prostitution is c omplex – Viable work option for those in poor nations, use of body to make money is economically empowering in some places (e.g., India) • Simultaneously, structural inequalities lead to exploitation based upon intersecting identities 4 Models of Prostitution Policy 1. Deterrence (Prohibitionist/Criminalization) Model 2. Legalization Model 3. Decriminalization Model 4. Abolitionist (Swedish/Nordic) Model 1. Deterrence Model (Prohibitionist/ Criminalization) • Prostitution criminalized all around • Crime for those who sell sex, buy sex, and any 3 rd parties (e.g., managers, pimps, madams, traffickers) • Those who sell sex are seen as having agency – made the choice to commit crime, with exception of trafficked people who are seen as victims • Result : Arrest, fines, jail time • U.S.*, China, Cambodia, Jamaica, Malta, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Romania, Slovenia, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, etc. Problems with Deterrence Model • Disproportionate arrest/charge rates/criminalization of sex workers • Misidentification of trafficked people as criminals • Builds distrust of law enforcement/ reduces help -seeking • Revolving door back into the commercial sex industry/ re -trafficking • Violence against commercial -sex involved people by police, clients, 3rd parties, and community members • No legal apparatus to defend themselves • Deterrence is ineffective at reducing both trafficking/prostitution • Just because something is illegal, it doesn’t mean it goes away • This is widely recognized as the worst system for trafficked and exploited people (as well as sex workers) 2. Decriminalization Model • Decriminalizes prostitution, for both buyers and sellers of sex • Traffickers are only ones criminalized • Criminalizes exploitation and coercion, not the sex work • Those who sell sex are seen as having agency, those who are trafficked are viewed as victims • Provides those in the sex industry with recourse for their victimization • Research indicates lowest levels of victimization to sex workers in these regions & low levels of sex trafficking • New Zealand, New South Wales, Australia (even these have some parts have rules, such as brothel licensing or banned street population) Problems with Decriminalization Model • Difficult to do comparative research because of small sample sizes (only 3 countries) • Can’t rule out regional contextual factors when analyzing results • Normalizes commercial sexual activity ( Herrington & McEachern’s (2018) consumption phase) • Those seeking to exit prostitution must have clear, effective routes • It is unclear what this model does to address root causes or provide resources for medical, mental health, housing, and rehabilitation services 3. Legalization Model • Decriminalizes prostitution, but also regulates it; there are “rules” • Criminalizes exploitation and coercion, not the sex work • Traffickers are criminalized, buyers and sellers are not • Those who sell sex are seen as having agency, trafficked people are seen as victims • Sex work is a legitimate occupation bound by the same rules – taxes, licensing, registration • Workers have recourse for their victimization • Healthcare, taxes, legal zones, expanded harm reduction • The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Hungary, Denmark, Brazil, Greece, Turkey, Senegal, Victoria, Queensland, and the Northern Territory in Australia, 10 counties in Nevada Problems with Legalization Model • Sellers of sex get health screenings, buyers do not (usually) • Legal workers continue to disproportionately be victims of crime • Have not yet attained the status of respected service provider • Police harassment continues • Taxes/licensing fees, health screening requirements are not popular among sex workers • Increased sex trafficking in some locations in Western Europe, but not in others, such as in Australia Increased Sex Trafficking in Legalization Models? • It depends on location….. • Scale effect – the expansion of prostitution markets after legalization (e.g., does it lead to increased sex trafficking too?) • Substitution effect – replacing illegal/forced prostitutes with legally residing and working in the country • Scale effect has more of an impact, with the exception of Australia & New Zealand where it is reduced; so is victimization vs. women (sex workers) • Regional contextual factors likely impact whether legalization/decriminalization increases or reduces sex trafficking (regional location, ease of travel, immigration) 4. Abolitionist Model (Swedish/Nordic) • Illegal for everyone but the person selling sex. Buyers & 3rd parties (pimps/traffickers) criminalized • All commercial sex involved people are seen as victims • Includes social -welfare services that assist people in exiting and avoiding prostitution • Public education campaigns to raise awareness of the harms experienced by prostituted people • Works to change social norms that support sex trafficking and prostitution • Shows decline in sex trafficking • Sweden, Norway, Iceland, and recently France *recent changes in the U.K., and some states in the US suggest movement in this direction…. The Swedish Prostitution Law (2013) 3:23 Problems with Abolitionist Model • Reduction in trafficking, but the research is methodologically challenging • Prostitution & trafficking are defined as the same thing • Unclear if it reduces it or moves it (Criminal Displacement/ Underground market) • Harm reduction benefits are conditional… • Takes away agency of those who wish to sell sex • Lack of harm reduction • Forces quicker and riskier decision making re: clients • Difficult to do comparative research because of small sample sizes • Can’t rule our regional contextual factors when analyzing results The Swedish Model vs. the Legalization (Nevada) Model • Legalize Prostitution to Fight Sex Trafficking? Sex Workers Say “Yes” (2015; 7:48) Required Video • Billionaires Can Buy Sex and Not Go to Jail. Why Can’t You? (The Real News Network, June 2019, 16:03) Link Ekberg (2004). The Swedish Law That Prohibits the Purchase of A Sexual Service: Best Practices for Prevention of Prostitution & Trafficking in Human Beings • “In Sweden, it is understood that any society that claims to defend principles of legal, political, economic, and social equality for women and girls must reject the idea that women and children, mostly girls, are commodities that can be bought, sold, and sexually exploited by men.” • To do otherwise is to allow that a separate class of female human beings, especially women/girls, who are economically and racially marginalized, is excluded from these measures, as well as from the universal protection of human dignity enshrined in the body of international human rights instruments developed during the past 50 years ” Ekberg (2004) • Prostitution is officially acknowledged as a form of male sexual violence against women and children • One of the cornerstones of Swedish policies against prostitution and trafficking in human beings is the focus on the root cause , the recognition that without men’s demand for and use of women and girls for sexual exploitation, the global prostitution industry would not be able flourish and expand • Pimps, traffickers, and prostitution buyers knowingly exploit the vulnerability of the victims caused by high rates of poverty, unemployment, discriminatory labor practices, gender inequalities, and male violence against women and children Swedish Prostitution Law (from Nefarious documentary, 2013, 3:23) Required Video Ekberg (2004) cont’d • Sweden recognizes that to succeed in the campaign against sexual exploitation, the political, social, and economic conditions under which women & girls live must be ameliorated • by introducing development measures of poverty reduction, sustainable development, measures that promote gender equality, and social programs focusing specifically on women • It is understood that the legalization of prostitution will inevitably normalize an extreme form of sexual discrimination and violence and strengthen male domination of all female human beings International Political Arena • The U.N. moved away from abolitionism , in part due to heated debates on females’ agency • Many European nations adopted legalization policy • Changing more recently in some countries • This is in part due to influx of migrants seeking work, xenophobia and anti -immigrant sentiments, in part due to increased sex trafficking/ awareness of exploitation How do these debates relate to sex trafficking? • Liberal Feminists typically support legalization or decriminalization models • Abolitionists/Radical Feminists usually support the abolitionist or “Swedish” model • The deterrence model (U.S. model) is widely recognized as harmful to sex trafficked, commercially sexually exploited people, and sex workers alike • Debates have international and national political presence Critical Thinking Questions 1. Describe the benefits and challenges of various models of prostitution policy 2. If you were to design a model of prostitution policy, what would it look like, and why? 3. Why is harm reduction so important, regardless of the prostitution policy at hand? The End Next Steps: • Read Ekberg (2004) article • Watch the required videos • Study for Midterm Exam Next module  9. Midterm Exam Start on Paper 2 International Political Arena cont’d • The International Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons 1949 was both anti -trafficking as well as anti -prostitution, and the first abolitionist attempt. Many states did not ratify it because it conflated trafficking and prostitution. • UN Vienna Declaration (1993) marked clear distinction between trafficking and prostitution • Palermo Protocol (2000) included wording “abuse of a position of vulnerability”
Write a 2-5 page essay, describing what you learned in this course, what it means to you, and what action can be taken in response to Human Trafficking issues. I will attach some of the powerpoint fro
Pornography, prostitution & sex trafficking demand: Theoretical viewpoints & empirical evidence Image from Flickr Early Political Perspectives of Pornography • Conservative perspective – preserving traditional sexual mores, morality and preventing degradation of women/children • Liberal perspective – freedom of sexual expression and free choice for women The Porn Wars • Liberal Feminist perspective – anti -censorship “it’s my body it’s my choice,” pornography is empowering, financially rewarding, and defying traditional mores of sexual purity of women is good • Radical Feminist perspective – pornography viewed as violation of civil rights, sexually objectifying & degrading to women • American Booksellers Association Inc. Vs. Hudnut (1985) had anti -porn Indianapolis ordinance that made it illegal to depict women in sexually subordinate roles or positions • Federal District court declared ordinance unconstitutional Manifesting in modern sex trafficking debates… • Radical Feminists/ Abolitionists – Largely support simultaneous abolition of pornography and prostitution • Sex trafficking, porn & prostitution are inextricably linked • Pornography fuels sexual objectification & commodification of women’s bodies, and demand for paid sex, resulting in sex trafficking • Liberal Feminist/Neoliberal perspectives – Sex trafficking, prostitution, and pornography are distinct • If porn/prostitution is a free choice, then it should be supported 3 Key Areas of Pornography Debates and Sex Trafficking 1. Demand 2. Violence Against Women 3. Inequality and General Degradation 1. Demand • Research does NOT link pornography to increased demand for commercial sex directly • But there is correlational research linking those who consume more porn as being more likely to buy sex • Child pornography is a form of sex trafficking • Thus demand for child pornography inherently creates sex trafficking 2. Violence Against Women • Worst case scenarios in pornography are uncommon, but do exist • They are already punishable by law • Frequency of violence in pornography depends on how “violence” is measured • Women are disproportionately targets of verbal and physical aggression in pornography 3. Inequality & General Degradation • Inequality between men and women in giving and receiving sexual pleasure in pornography • Playing the dominant or subordinate role in sex • Inequality between sexes in conducting or receiving acts of degradation • Debates about what qualifies as degradation Cultural normalization, Blurring the Lines and DMST • Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking ( DMST ) – same as CSEC (Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children) • Lolita (“precociously seductive”) • Teen porn • Schoolgirl fetish • “Just turned 18,” “jailbait,” “barely legal,” “new in town” • Toddlers in Tiaras Child Pornography as Sex Trafficking • According to the US TVPA, any commercial sex act involving a minor is sex trafficking • This includes pornography • Creating something of value ($) makes it a commercial sex act • Buying, selling, trading images, creating, possessing and distributing, it can be viewed as sex trafficking • Demand for child pornography creates sex trafficking to make it Supreme Court • Supports pornography as a form of free speech, excepting child pornography and subjectively determined breaches of obscenity • The Miller test : When deciding whether material was obscene and could therefore be subject to state regulation, the Court said a state had to consider: • a) whether the average person, applying contemporary community standards would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest • b) whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law, and • c) whether the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. • Anti -censorship Outcomes – U.S. • Debates between radical feminists/abolitionists & liberal feminists remain • Legally, we maintain distinction between pornography, prostitution, and trafficking • Pornography will not change. USSC makes it clear that it is a protected form of free speech (exception= minors, subjective calls on obscenity) • U.S. keeps deterrence model of prostitution (worst for outcomes) • Trafficking legislation focuses on decriminalization of minors selling sex, channeling them into services instead of criminalizing them • Adults remain largely criminalized, unless force, fraud or coercion can be proven • In some states, adults who can prove trafficking can expunge criminal records • Increased efforts on “End Demand” approaches, targeting buyers • See 2019 Florida Law Establishing a ‘Johns Registry’ To Shame People Convicted of Paying For Sex Herrington & McEachern (2018). Breaking Her Spirit Through Objectification, Fragmentation, & Consumption: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Domestic Sex Trafficking • Main purpose of this article is to apply Adams’ (2010) theoretical model of violence against women to the special population of women and children who are exploited through sex trafficking & pornography • 3 main stages to Adam’s (2010) model of VAW 1. Objectification 2. Fragmentation 3. Consumption Critical Thinking Questions Florida creates a registry for solicitors of prostitution “John Registry” (May 2019, 2:20) Should Prostitution be Legal??? (2015, 3:30) 1. Describe at least 3 key radical feminist arguments used to justify eradication of pornography, and the research supporting or refuting these arguments. 2. What is the Supreme Court’s determination about pornography and censorship? Do you agree or disagree, and why? 3. In what ways do some types of pornography contribute to cultural desire for young adult bodies (male & female)? Herrington & McEachern (2018) 1. Objectification – permits an oppressor to view another being as an object. The oppressor then violates this being by object -like treatment: e.g., “the rape of women that denies women freedom to say no” • Two manifestations of the objectification process are “breaking her spirit” to force a woman to comply and asserting control over nearly every aspect of her life, including her movements and image, with the ultimate goal of selling a “product” to the public • Pimps objectify women & children through a process that turns them into profitable commodities by controlling virtually every moment of their lives • After you have broken her spirit she has no sense of self -value. Now pimp, put a price tag on the item you have manufactured • Over time, the commodification and objectification of her body by pimps and johns are internalized . Portions of her body are numbed and compartmentalized. Eventually she also sees her body as a commodity rather than as integral to the rest of herself. Trauma and torture survivors commonly experience this profound disconnectedness Herrington & McEachern (2018) cont’d • Fragmentation – the process of objectification allows fragmentation, or brutal dismemberment, both literally and conceptually, and she posits that “through fragmentation the object is severed from its ontological meaning” (Adams, 2010) • Johns are “renting an organ for ten minutes” • Fragmentation occurs psychologically & physiologically to trauma victims who have been treated as “mere receptacles” • Trauma bonds hold people just as securely as physical chains • Isolation from family members and lack of social bonds are themselves a kind of forced fragmentation. Prostituted women and children are often prevented from developing meaningful connections with one another Herrington & McEachern (2018) cont’d • Consumption – Having first been objectified & fragmented, both prostituted adults & children are finally consumed (i.e., purchased) either through commercial sex or pornography • most pornography today falls into the category known as “gonzo porn,” a genre in which women and girls are routinely brutalized, demeaned, humiliated & debased • Experts from any number of disciplines debate the cumulative effect that pornography has on boys/men when they view it on a regular basis. • Correlation and causation aside, 3 facts are not in dispute: 1. Some men/boys are willing to view ever -increasingly brutal porn, which means that pornographers will supply their demand (Dines, 2010); 2. The explosion of Internet child pornography has led consumers to demand prostituted children at increasingly younger ages 3. Johns demand prostitutes act out what the they have viewed in porn Rhode Island Accidentally Legalized Prostitution…. • Here’s What Happened When Rhode Island Accidentally Legalized Prostitution … (12 min) International Political Arena • The International Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons 1949 was both anti -trafficking as well as anti -prostitution, and the first abolitionist attempt. Many states did not ratify it because it conflated trafficking and prostitution. • UN Vienna Declaration (1993) marked clear distinction between trafficking and prostitution • Palermo Protocol (2000) included wording “abuse of a position of vulnerability” International Political Arena cont’d • The U.N. moved away from abolitionism , in part due to heated debates • Many European nations adopted legalization policy • Changing more recently in some countries • This is in part due to influx of migrants seeking work, xenophobia and anti -immigrant sentiments, in part due to increased sex trafficking/ awareness of exploitation Liberal / Intersectional Feminism in the International Political Arena • GAATW (G lobal A lliance A gainst T raffic in W omen), draws a line between sex work and trafficking, trafficking is forced, sex work is voluntary. Abolish trafficking but not sex work (based in Thailand) • ICPR (International C ommittee for P rostitutes’ R ights) – Legalize prostitution for the benefit of sex workers. Eradicate trafficking while working to support sex workers’ rights simultaneously Radical Feminism in the International Political Arena CATW (C oalition A gainst T rafficking in W omen) – abolitionist, wish to abolish both trafficking and prostitution as they believe they are inherently intertwined. International Organization based in the US
Write a 2-5 page essay, describing what you learned in this course, what it means to you, and what action can be taken in response to Human Trafficking issues. I will attach some of the powerpoint fro
Lecture 4: Economics of Human Trafficking Economic Size of the Problem • Quantifying the size of illicit economic activity is important because it helps policy makers assess the impact of the problem • This helps them allocate resources to fight the activity Top illegal markets world – wide 1. Global drug trade = $750 billion (2013 est. by UNODC) 2. Human trafficking = $150 billion (ILO, 2014) 3. Illegal arms trafficking = $6 billion (Schroeder & Lamb, 2006) Economics of Human Trafficking  The International Labor Organization (ILO, 2014) estimated that human trafficking globally generates $150 billion in illegal profits a year  $99 billion from sex trafficking  $51 billion from labor trafficking  Exposing the economics of sex trafficking in the U.S. (PBS, 2014 – DOJ study: 5:10) ASSIGNED Video  Walk Free Foundation’s (2016) Gallup poll of 42k people in 53 languages worldwide estimated that 45.8 million people are trapped in some form of human trafficking ASSIGNED Website  57,700 people enslaved in the U.S. Consequences of trafficking for victims  The costs of human trafficking to victims are significant and often life -long  Victims often experience wage theft (Owens et al. 2014)  Victims suffer substantial economic costs due to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse (Busch et al. 2016) & due to a lack of legal work histories face diminished economic opportunity  Since commercial sex is illegal in most of the U.S., many sex trafficking victims become involved with the justice system, and are criminalized despite laws aimed at protecting victims (Barnard 2014) International Labor Organization  ILO formed after WWI to connect governments, employers, and workers to “secure the permanent peace of the world ” by promoting humane working conditions  It became a specialized United Nations agency after WWII  ILO published the first quantitative estimate of human trafficking worldwide in 2005  Estimated that 4.5 million people were sex trafficking victims worldwide  About 14.2 million people were victims of labor trafficking International Labor Organization 2  2 ways to estimate economic profits of human trafficking 1. Profit -and -loss estimation a) Based on revenues generated by each slave minus the cost of running the forced -labor operation (Kara, 2009) 2. Value -added methodology a) Looks at wages in industrial/agricultural sectors b) Discounts those wages by the percentage of a trafficked worker’s wages that was estimated NOT to have been paid to that worker Industrial characteristics that increase risk for HT activity  U.S. Dept. of State identify these as industrial risk factors:  Hazardous/undesirable work  Vulnerable, easily replaced, and/or low -skilled workforce  Migrant workforce  Presence of labor contractors, recruiters, agents, or other middlemen in labor supply chain  Long, complex and/or non -transparent supply chains  The Hidden Reality of Labor Trafficking in the U.S. | “Trafficked in America” | FRONTLINE (5:01) – ASSIGNED Video  Watch the full length documentary here: https://to.pbs.org/2EGIzgl (this could be something you use for Paper 1 )  Agriculture  Construction  Electronics & electrical products manufacturing  Mining & basic metal production  Fishing & aquaculture  Health care  Hospitality  Housekeeping & facilities operations  Textile & apparel manufacturing  Transportation & warehousing Identified industries at higher risk for labor trafficking activity  Legal Team in Landmark Labor Trafficking Case Named Trial Lawyers of the Year (3:42) ASSIGNED Video  Who is Signal International?  How did they recruit laborers?  What coercive tactics did they use?  How did they control laborers once they got them to the work camp in Mississippi?  How did legal authorities find out about this case?  How long did it take to prosecute those involved in trafficking for Signal? Signal International Labor Trafficking Case: 2006 – 2015 (p 125) Supply chain (nutshell)  Supply chain = the economic path a good or service travels from the point of production to its end consumer  Involves more than 1 business or group of people and multiple steps of production, transportation, marketing, and selling 1. Human traffickers – recruits and delivers groups of slave laborers to producers or manufacturers 2. Producers/manufacturers – put laborers to work making goods or providing services a) Cheap labor lowers cost of production, which can result in them selling goods for less b) This can drive out other, legal producers from market (Capitalism, neo -liberal trade policies, & globalization exacerbate this…. ) The supply chain 3. Wholesalers – act as the middlemen between producers and retailers (sometimes participate in HT enterprises by moving goods they know were made with exploited labor) 4. Retailers – they are often not aware products they purchase from wholesalers or producers were made with slave labor ( globalization exacerbates this) 5. Consumers – final link in supply chain – typically purchase goods without any knowledge of supply chain which may have been produced with slave labor The supply chain 2 Once consumers are aware that products they use/buy are produced with slave labor – THEY CAN STOP IT by BOYCOTTING retailers and producers or organizing awareness campaigns The Dark Side of Chocolate (46: 2010)  Child Labour : The Dark Side of Chocolate (8:07) – Take a look inside the slaves who are picking the cocoa for your chocolate bar Raise the Bar Hershey Campaign aims to make company certified by 2020 Conflict minerals in our electronics  I’m a Mac … and I’ve Got a Dirty Secret (1:45)  Modern Slavery in Electronics: Facts About Slave -Mined Conflict Minerals from the Congo (2:13)  Special report : Inside the Congo cobalt mines that exploit children (6:16)  Conflict minerals: The truth behind your smartphone (4:23)  We all use electronic devices like mobile phones, but where do the materials that make them come from? Tin, tungsten, tantalum and gold are the four most common ‘conflict minerals’, known collectively as 3TGs. Their mining causes insecurity and human rights abuses in many regions. Armed groups clash over their illegal trade. Fairphone is one manufacturer which takes responsibility to ensure its supply chains extract minerals lawfully. The European Parliament is pushing for more transparency in supply chains through mandatory OECD due diligence systems. Fair Trade issues in labor trafficking  Sweatshop Hall of Shame highlights apparel and textile companies that use sweatshops in their global production  Hall of Shame inductees are responsible for evading fair labor standards and often are slow to respond or provide no response at all to any attempts by the International Labor Rights Forum (ILRF), workers, or others to improve working conditions.  Hall of Shame: Abercrombie & Fitch, Gymboree, Hanes, Ikea, Kohl’s, LL Bean, Pier 1 Imports, Hollister, Hershey, and Walmart  Sweatfree Communities “Push – Pull” Factors  Large supply of potential victims:  Lack of employment opportunities, poverty, illiteracy, lack of awareness  Growing demand for women & children for sex, and for forced or exploitative labor (globalization, trade policies & capitalism )  Organized criminal networks exploit supply & demand situation:  Trafficking in persons is regarded as a high profit – low risk crime Globalization’s role in slavery  Globalization = “ the closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world….brought about by the enormous reduction in transportation and communication costs, an the breaking down of artificial barriers to the flows of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and to a lesser extent, people across borders ” (Joseph Stiglitz , 2002, p. 9 – Nobel Prize winner in economics)  Globalization exacerbates ALL of the factors that have contributed to the supply of slave labor throughout history  Poverty  Bias/Discrimination based on gender, race/ethnicity, religion, citizenship  Lawlessness  Military conflict  Social instability  Economic breakdown Neo – liberal trade policies’ role in slavery  Neo -liberal trade: emphasize minimal state intervention in economic and social affairs, and is committed to the freedom of trade and capitalism (often despite the abuses of vulnerable people/countries)  Kamala Kempadoo (2015) argues neo -liberal trade relations imposed on less -developed countries and enforced by global economic institutions (e.g., World Bank, International Monetary Fund) have opened up once -restricted markets & purposefully destabilized the global economy for the benefit of developed countries What do you think?  Does capitalism lead to poverty and underdevelopment?  Is slavery just an unintended consequence of the normal brutal functioning of global capitalism and neoliberalism? (McNally, 2011) The End Next Steps:  Watch the required videos  Explore the news stories mentioned in lecture (note they are fair game for quizzes /midterm) Next module  5. The Dark Side of the Sunshine State – Human Trafficking in Florida Start on Paper 1 if you have not already!
Write a 2-5 page essay, describing what you learned in this course, what it means to you, and what action can be taken in response to Human Trafficking issues. I will attach some of the powerpoint fro
Slavery In the Past & Modern Day Slavery Historical Slavery • Abolished and outlawed in the 19th century… • U.S. by the 13 th Amendment (1865) • Brazil was last country in the America’s to outlaw it in 1888 – But there are more slaves today than in 1860 – When slaves were sold into new world -slavery on the West – African coast, they would face a terrible journey across the Atlantic Ocean – They would spend the majority of the journey in chains and awful conditions of filth and bad nutrition, leading to disease & death – In fact, of the 10 -15 million slaves who were to be forced across the Atlantic, at least 2 million died (between 15 -20%) Inhumane Punishments  Slaves would be routinely punished with whipping and beating amongst other forms of punishment  They would be held in captivity and below the deck of the ship all night with no access to any essentials (e.g., food, water, bathrooms) A famous picture of the infamous “The Brookes” ship’s layout Dancing the Slaves  When they were allowed on the upper deck for brief period during the daytime, slaves were forced to ‘exercise’  Often this took the form of being forced to dance for their master’s amusement Slaves Revolting  In such unbelievably terrible conditions, slaves sometimes tried to rebel to overthrow the rule of the ship’s crew  In such conditions, suicide by jumping into the sea became common  This was a problem for ship captains as slaves were very valuable  The methods used to combat suicide therefore, were very severe  E.g., captains used the sharks that followed the ships as a means to terrify slaves. One ship captain, who had a rash of suicides on his ship, took a woman and lowered her into the water on a rope, and pulled her out as quickly as as possible. When the slaves could see her, it became apparent that the sharks had already killed her — and bitten off the lower half of her body.’ Historical Slavery (2)  From 1641 – 1750 slavery was legalized in 10 colonies (Massachusetts, Virginia, Maryland, New York, New Jersey, South Carolina, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, & Georgia)  Widely assumed that slave labor was crucial to colonies’ economic development (e.g., demand for cheap labor)  Mainstream society supported slavery  Quakers were first group to oppose slavery and signed a petition in 1688 that declared slavery was antithetical to Christian teachings and principles)  Not all slaves were from Africa – many came from England (i.e., convicts, prostitutes, panhandlers) Historical Slavery (3)  Not all slaves were African  50,000 – 70,000 white slaves came from England (convicts, prostitutes, panhandlers, nonconformists or outcasts)  Many Irish were forced into slavery abroad under Oliver Cromwell’s rule (under ethnic -cleansing policy)  >300,000 were willingly transported to new world as indentured servants (similar to smuggling  debt bondage today) Historical Slavery (4) What is modern day slavery?  A slave is:  Forced to work — through mental or physical threat  Owned or controlled by an ’employer’, usually through mental or physical abuse or threatened abuse  Dehumani zed, treated as a commodity or bought and sold as ‘property’  Physically constrained or has restrictions placed on his/her freedom of movement  Control does not have to mean being chained up or locked somewhere (often slaves are controlled mentally) Video & class discussion  https://www.pbs.org/video/global -perspectives -kevin -bales – contemporary -slavery/ (25) Kevin Bales – Contemporary Slavery Research  Kevin Bales, Professor of Contemporary Slavery at the University of Nottingham, discusses the problem of slavery in the 21st century and his research effort to figure out the exact numbers of people in slavery.  Compare historical slavery to contemporary slavery  How does racial discrimination and sexism influence MDS?  What are the situations modern slaves find themselves in?  Where could you possibly encounter modern slaves? TIP Report Classification The U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA Oct . 2000 ), requires the DOJ to submit an annual report to Congress on the status of severe forms of human trafficking.  Under the act, the DOJ classifies countries into 3 tiers  The worst, Tier 3 , represents a group of countries that do not fully comply with the act’s minimum standards and are making insignificant efforts to reach compliance: Bangladesh, Cuba, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Gyana, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Venezuela, Northern Korea & Burma.  Tier 2 countries do not fully comply but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance: 42 countries, including Georgia, India, Laos, Mexico, the Philippines and Russia, Japan.  Tier 1 nations are in full compliance with TVPA standards Videos & discussion  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fKFPIL_RNlI (3:30) Hidden Victims of HT – Amy Farrell, PhD  The National Institute of Justice has funded a study looking at the barriers that local communities face identifying, investigating and prosecuting human trafficking cases under new state human trafficking laws. Critical Race Theory (CRT)  CRT acknowledges that racism is endemic to American life, deeply ingrained legally, culturally, socially & psychologically  CRT challenges dominant ideologies (e.g., white privilege, race neutrality, objectivity, color blindness)  CRT contends that race equality has been gained only when the interests of people of color promote those of whites  CRT insists on a contextual/historical analysis of race and racism (not to dwell on the past but to move beyond it)  CRT relies on stories & counter -stories of the lived experiences of people of color as a way to community the realities of the oppressed  CRT focuses on race and racism but also includes their intersection with other forms of subordination (e.g., gender, class discrimination) Intersectionality  Intersectionality acknowledges that race, gender, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and class coexist to shape social identity, behavior, opportunities, and access to rights  Crenshaw’s (1991) intersectionality refers to how multiple forms of oppression are interrelated  Using an intersectional lens helps us explore multiple, complex and mutually reinforcing systems of oppression (e.g., racism, sexism, classism, homophobia, heterocentrism )  Regarding human trafficking – not all people are at equal risk of becoming a victim for various forms of trafficking  Harvard’s Implicit Association Test – Race (black – white)  https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html
Write a 2-5 page essay, describing what you learned in this course, what it means to you, and what action can be taken in response to Human Trafficking issues. I will attach some of the powerpoint fro
Module 1: Introduction to human trafficking: Definitions and measuring the scope of the problem 1 What is Human Trafficking?  Human trafficking is a term used to identify the criminal act of using force, fraud or coercion when recruiting, transporting, harboring, providing, or obtaining another person for the purpose of labor or commercial sexual activity  Human trafficking is not voluntary  The victims of human trafficking are forced, threatened, coerced, or deceived , with the specific intent to exploit their labor or sex for commercial benefit 2 Elements  The three main elements of FORCE , FRAUD or COERCION exist in every human trafficking situation to where vulnerable people are exploited WHY DOES HUMAN TRAFFICKING EXIST? It’s a high profit , low -risk crime and a demand exists -Every year, human traffickers generate billions of dollars in profits by victimizing millions of people – Low criminal risk: When the community is unaware of this issue, when government and community institutions are not trained to respond, when there are ineffective or dormant laws to address the crime, when safety nets for victims do not exist, and when law enforcement does not investigate and prosecute the crime, human traffickers perceive little risk or deterrence to affect their criminal operations – It is fueled by a demand for cheap labor, services & commercial sex acts Human Trafficking vs. Smuggling  Do not confuse the term “ trafficking ” with the concept of illegally moving or transporting humans ( smuggling )  There is no requirement that a person be moved from one place to another to be trafficked  People who volunteer to be smuggled across international borders have usually paid a large fee to be smuggled  While smuggling people across an international border is a crime, the people who are being voluntarily smuggled are not victims of trafficking 5 Sex Trafficking as a Form of Human Trafficking  Sex trafficking is commercial sexual activity that was compelled through coercion, fraud, force, or threats of force when the victim is 18 years old or older  Sex trafficking of a minor is another form that has occurred when a person, who is younger than 18 years of age is enticed, harbored, recruited, obtained, transported, provided, solicited, patronized, or maintained for the purpose of commercial sexual activity  Sex trafficking of a child does not require the use of any threats, force, or coercion  Any form of commercial sexual activity using a person under the age of 18 years old is sex trafficking of a child and can be punished as human trafficking 6 Labor Trafficking as a Form of Human Trafficking  Labor trafficking is when a trafficker obtains, transports, provides, harbors, or recruits another, and threatens to use force, uses force, deceives, or uses any coercive techniques to compel the person to perform work without fair pay  Other forms of labor trafficking:  Debt bondage can include debt that was acquired by a person as a condition of his employment.  Domestic servitude is a form of labor trafficking in which the worker is not paid, underpaid, is abused, or is not free to leave the residence of the employer. 7 Scope of the Problem • Quantifying the size of illicit economic activity is important because it helps policy makers assess the impact of the problem • This helps them allocate resources to fight the activity Top illegal markets world – wide 1. Global drug trade = $750 billion (2013 est. by UNODC) 2. Human trafficking = $150 billion (ILO, 2014) 3. Illegal arms trafficking = $6 billion (Schroeder & Lamb, 2006) 8 Scope of the Problem (Cont.)  The International Labor Organization (ILO, 2014) estimated that human trafficking globally generates $150 billion in illegal profits a year  $99 billion from sex trafficking  $51 billion from labor trafficking  Walk Free Foundation’s (2016) Gallup poll of 42,000 people in 53 languages worldwide estimated that 45.8 million people are trapped in some form of human trafficking  57,700 people enslaved in the U.S. Conclusion  Human trafficking is a term used to identify the criminal act of using force, fraud or coercion when recruiting, transporting, harboring, providing, or obtaining another person for the purpose of labor or commercial sexual activity  Human trafficking can be sex or labor trafficking  Sex trafficking is commercial sexual activity that was compelled through force, fraud, coercion, or threats of force when the victim is 18 years old or older  Sex trafficking of a child does not require the use of any threats, force, or coercion . Any form of commercial sexual activity using a person under the age of 18 years old can be punished as HT  Labor trafficking is when a trafficker obtains, transports, provides, harbors, or recruits another, and threatens to use force, uses force, deceives, or uses any coercive techniques to compel the person to perform work 10 Discussion  Victims of sex trafficking have often suffered severe trauma over a long period of time  That trauma leads to fear, behavioral issues, mental illnesses, drug addictions, & other psychological issues  The psychological trauma creates a unique bond between the victims (especially sex trafficking) and the traffickers  The bond between the victims and the traffickers often prevents the victims from assisting law enforcement  Solution is to develop a victim centered investigation where law enforcement first focuses on the stabilization of the victim  As a result of the psychological trauma and the need to stabilize the victim, law enforcement must collaborate with social service experts  The need for law enforcement to collaborate with social service experts has led to the creation of a collaborative model where law enforcement and social services work side – by -side in a task force style team 11

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